Table 1

Association of sociodemographic factors with male births, ultrasound during antenatal care (ANC) and knowledge of sex of current child before birth in study hospitals

Male BirthUltrasound during ANCKnew the sex of the current child before birth
Est. (95% CI)Est. (95% CI)Est. (95% CI)
Mother’s age (ref: <20) (years)
 20–240.006 (−0.002 to 0.014)0.014** (0.000 to 0.028)−0.009 (−0.026 to 0.008)
 25–290.010 (−0.009 to 0.025)0.030*** (0.015 to 0.044)0.002 (−0.017 to 0.021)
 ≥300.014** (0.007 to 0.032)0.043*** (0.025 to 0.061)0.040*** (0.014 to 0.067)
Mother’s education (ref: secondary or higher)
 Primary0.009 (−0.006 to 0.035)−0.052*** (−0.079 -to −0.024)0.032** (0.001 to 0.063)
 No schooling0.025 (−0.012 to 0.058)−0.130*** (−0.169 -to −0.089)0.049*** (0.015 to 0.083)
Parity (ref: 1)
 20.049*** (0.014 to 0.078)−0.020*** (−0.029 -to −0.011)0.056*** (0.041 to 0.072)
 ≥30.178*** (0.136 to 0.210)−0.028*** (−0.045 -to −0.011)0.252*** (0.217 to 0.289)
Mother’s education*parity
 Primary*2−0.038* (−0.090 to 0.000)0.001 (−0.040 to 0.042)−0.070*** (−0.112 -to −0.026)
 Primary*≥3−0.113*** (−0.151 -to −0.054)−0.006 (−0.056 to 0.043)−0.131*** (−0.204 -to −0.058)
 No schooling*2−0.065** (−0.124 -to −0.011)0.007 (−0.049 to 0.064)−0.109*** (−0.153 -to −0.064)
 No schooling*≥3−0.139*** (−0.198 -to −0.074)−0.050* (−0.104 to 0.004)−0.219*** (−0.278 -to −0.159)
Ethnicity (ref: Janajaati)
 Chhetri0.013** (0.002 to 0.034)0.028*** (0.017 to 0.038)−0.0001 (−0.018 to 0.018)
 Hill Brahmin0.011 (−0.002 to 0.025)0.022*** (0.014 to 0.030)0.007 (−0.008 to 0.022)
 Madhesi0.005 (−0.068 to 0.049)−0.024** (−0.047 to- −0.001)−0.005 (−0.027 to 0.018)
 Dalit−0.005 (−0.018 to 0.009)−0.015** (−0.030 to- −0.001)0.002 (−0.016 to 0.020)
 Muslim−0.028** (−0.068 -to −0.007)0.014 (−0.021 to 0.049)−0.028* (−0.058 to 0.002)
 Others0.025* (−0.003 to 0.049)0.032** (0.003 to 0.060)0.045* (−0.002 to 0.091)
Region (ref: Terai)
 Hill0.003 (−0.020 to 0.011)−0.006 (−0.022 to 0.010)−0.016 (−0.043 to 0.012)
 Mountain0.003 (−0.090 to 0.042)−0.295 (−51.884 to 51.213)−0.105 (−102.651 to 103.068)
Number of abortions (ref: 0)
 10.0003 (−0.022 to 0.035)0.019** (0.003 to 0.035)0.0363** (0.002 to 0.070)
 2+0.050 (−0.006 to 0.100)0.055*** (0.024 to 0.084)0.068 (−0.031 to 0.164)
Constant0.518*** (0.474 to 0.551)0.951*** (0.932 to 0.970)0.245*** (0.217 to 0.274)
 Observations75 42814 01513 113
 R2 0.0090.1110.077
  • *P<0.1, **P<0.05, ***P<0.01.

  • All regression models adjusted for hospital and month fixed effects.

  • Difference from null tested using wild cluster bootstrap method.