Table 1

Model inputs and data sources

DataData source
Import and tariff dataWorld Trade Organisation15 and HM Revenues and Customs.16
Supply data (domestic production, imports and exports)Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.26
Price elasticities (mean of annual elasticity estimates between 2000 and 2009)Tiffin et al 17
Means of F&V intake by age and sexNational Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme Years 1–8 (2008/2009 to 2015/2016).18
F&V subgroups gradient (ratio to overall F&V intake)Purchase data from the Living Costs and Food Survey 2016/2017.19
Relative risk for CHD/ischaemic stroke/haemorrhagic stroke by serving of fruit/vegetable intake by ageMicha et al 20
CHD and stroke mortality projections for England by age and sex (2021–2030)Own estimations using historic mortality data and population projections from the Office for National Statistics.
Ischaemic to haemorrhagic stroke ratio, estimated using number of deaths by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code, age, and sex in 2016Office for National Statistics.
  • CHD, coronary heart disease; F&V, fruits and vegetables.