Table 2

Added costs to F&V imports in each Brexit scenario

No BrexitImports from the EUDuty-free imports from non-EU countriesDutiable imports from non-EU countries
TariffsTransaction costsTariffsTariffs
No tariffsNoneNo tariffsEU MFN tariffs
Scenario 1No tariffsRules of originEU MFN tariffs*50%EU MFN tariffs
Scenario 2No tariffsRules of originEU MFN tariffsEU MFN tariffs
Scenario 3EU MFN tariffsRules of origin and technical regulationsEU MFN tariffsEU MFN tariffs
Scenario 4Zero MFN tariffsRules of origin and technical regulationsZero MFN tariffsZero MFN tariffs
  • Scenario 1: free trading agreement with the EU and third countries; scenario 2: free trading agreement with the EU; scenario 3: no-deal Brexit; Scenario 4: liberalised trade regime (see online supplementary appendix C for more details).

  • EU, European Union; F&V, fruits and vegetables;¬†MFN, most favoured nation.