Table 1

Typology of choice architecture intervention in micro-environments, modified from Hollands et al 20

Intervention classIntervention type
Primarily alter properties of objects or stimuliAmbience—alter aesthetic or atmospheric aspects of the surrounding environment
Functional design—design or adapt equipment or function of the environment
Labelling—apply labelling or endorsement information to product or at point-of-choice
Presentation—alter sensory qualities or visual design of the product
Sizing—change size or quantity of the product
Pricing—change price of the product
Primarily alter placement of objects or stimuliAvailability—add behavioural options within a given microenvironment
Proximity— make behavioural options easier or harder to engage with, requiring reduced or increased effort
Alter both properties and placement of objects or stimuliPriming—place incidental cues in the environment to influence a non-conscious behavioural response
Prompting— use non-personalised information to promote or raise awareness of a behaviour