Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

PICOS strategy39 Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
P—PopulationHospitalised children and adolescents for acute conditions or chronic disordersNon-hospitalised children and adolescents
I—InterventionClown intervention
C—ComparisonUsual standard of care without receiving clown intervention
O—OutcomeAny measure related to symptom clusters: anxiety, depression, pain, fatigue, stress and psychological, emotional responses and perceived well-beingStudies that do not report any symptom cluster as primary outcome
S—Study designRandomised controlled trial and non-randomised controlled trials (quasi-experimental study)All the non-primary literature, such as reviews, dissertations, theses, editorials, protocol studies and clinical guidelines