Table 1

Characteristics of the studies included

Study IDLocationSample size
(male %)
Mean ageExercise typeExercise protocolFrequency of exerciseDurationOutcomesImproved
Afshar 2010Iran21 (100)51.6AE+RT10–30 min stationary cycling at an intensity of 65%‒85% of maximal capacity; a 10–30 min RT of lower extremities at an intensity of 65%–85% of maximal capacity.3 times/week8 weeksKt/V, Alb, Hb, TC2
Vilsteren 2004Netherlands103 (66)54.5AECycling for 20–30 min at an intensity of less than 60% maximal capacity.2–3 times/week12 weeksDBP, Kt/V, SBP, DS, TC, Hb, VO2 peak3
Bohm 2014Canada60 (66.7)52.5AECycling during the first half of each dialysis session.3 times/week24 weeksVO2 peak, 6MWD5
Chen 2010USA50 (52)69RTLower body RT using ankle weights progressively in half-pound increments from 0.5 to 20 lbs at an intensity of 60% maximal capacity.2 times/week24 weeksPCS, MCS5
Reboredo 2010Portugal28 (36.4)46.6AECycling for an hour.3 times/week12 weeksVO2 peak, HB, Alb, P2
Wilund 2010USA17 (47.1)59.8AECycling for 45 min at a PRE level of 12–14.3 times/week4 minSBP, DBP, P, TC, Alb3
Makhlough 2012Iran47 (63.8)55.8AE15 min of AE using a range of motion joints during the first 2 hours of dialysis.3 times/week2 minHb, P4
Song 2012Korea40 (50)53.3RT30 min of RT at PRE level of 11–15*.3 times/week12 weeksPCS, MCS, TC2
de Lima 2013Brazil32 (56.3)43.3AE+RTCycling for 20 min at an intensity of between 2 and 3 on the modified Borg scale; 3 series of 15 repetitions using the lower limbs, using 40% of a repetition maximum load.3 times/week8 weeksHb, P4
Giannaki 2013Greece32 (62.5)56.3AECycling during the HD session at an intensity of 60%–65% of maximal exercise capacity.3 times/week6 minPCS, MCS, DS5
Mohseni 2013Iran50 (60)54.5AEAE movement for 15 min.3 times/week8 weeksKt/V5
Kouidi 2002Greece58 (53.4)48.8AE+RT30 min with a bed bicycle ergometer and 30 min exercise for strength.3 times/week6 minVO2 peak2
DePaul 2002Canada38 (60.5)54.5AE+RTCycling for 20 min and isotonic quadriceps and hamstrings RT at a level of perceived exertion at approximately 50 rpm.3 times/week12 weeks6MWD, SBP, Hb, DBP5
Johansen 2006USA79 (62)55.6RTRT of lower limbs starting at 60% of a three-repetition maximum for two sets of 10 repetitions—which was increased to three sets.3 times/week12 weeksPCS5
Petraki 2008Greece43 (74.4)50.3AE+RT60 min cycling at a PRE level of 13 and 30 min RT.3 times/week7 weeksSBP, DBP, VO2 peak, Hb3
Kouidi 2009Greece59 (57.6)53.9AE+RTCycling and strengthening exercises for 90 min according to each patient’s ability.3 times/week10 minVO2 peak, Hb, P4
Ouzouni 2009Greece35 (77.1)48.8AE+RTCycling for 30 min and RT for 30 min at a PRE level of 13–14.3 times/week10 minSBP, DBP, MCS, PCS, VO2 peak, DS2
Kouidi 2010Greece44 (59.1)46.1AECycling for 60–90 min during the first 2 hours of the HD according to each patient’s ability.3 times/week48 weeksHb, DS, P, VO2 peak3
Koh 2010Australia70 (63)51.8AECycling for 2 hour at a PRE level of 12‒13.3 times/week6 minPCS, MCS, SBP, DBP, 6MWD5
Parsons 2004Canada18 (38.9)54.1AEThree 15 min bouts of cycling at 40%–50% of their maximal capacity during HD.3 times/week8 weeksHb, Kt/V, PCS, MCS3
Dobsak 2011France32 (56.3)61.1AECycling between the second and third hour of the HD session.3 times/week20 weeks6MWD, Kt/V, PCS, MCS2
Groussard 2015France20 (75)67.6AECycling during the first 2 hours of HD at 55%–60% of the peak power output.3 times/week3 min6MWD, VO2 peak, ALB, TC, Kt/V, Hb3
Hristea 2016France21 (57.1)69.7AECycling for 30 min at an intensity of level 3-moderate on the PRE.3 times/week6 minPCS, MCS, Hb, Alb, 6MWD, Kt/V, P3
Martin-Alemañy 2016Mexico44 (34.1)34RTRT for 40 min at a PRE level intensity of 12–13.two times/week12 weeksAlb, P4
Liao 2016Taiwan40 (42.5)62AECycling for 30 min at a PRE intensity level of 12–15.3 times/week3 minSBP, DBP, ALB, Kt/V, TC2
Wu 2014China69 (79.7)48.8AECycling for 10–15 min at intensity that equated to a Borg tiredness score of 12–16.3 times/week12 weeks6MWD, PCS4
Painter 2002USA65 (41.5)45.9AECycling for 30 min at a PRE intensity level of 12–14.3 times/week5 minVO2 peak4
  • *PRE level range from 6 to 20. PRE level at 11 refers to light and 15 refers to hard.

  • AE, aerobic exercise; Alb, albumin; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DS, depressive state; Hb, haemoglobin; HD, haemodialysis; MCS, mental component summary; 6MWD, 6 min walk distance; P, phosphorus; PCS, physical component summary; RT, resistance exercise; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; VO2 peak, peak oxygen consumption.