Table 2

Key training variables for resistance training (RT)

VariableInterpretation
Muscle actionsMost RT programmes primarily include dynamic repetitions with both concentric (CON; muscle shortening) and eccentric (ECC; muscle lengthening) muscle actions, whereas isometric (ISOM; no net change in muscle length) actions play a secondary role (eg, during non-agonist muscle stabilisation, core strength, grip strength, pauses between ECC and CON actions or specific agonist ISOM exercises).
Intensity (loading)Include one or more of the following schemes for increasing load:
  1. Based on a percentage of 1 RM;

  2. Based on a targeted repetition number;

  3. Within a prescribed zone (eg, 8–12 RM).

VolumeSummation of the total number of repetitions performed during a training session (repetition volume). Include altering by changing:
  1. Number of exercises performed per session.

  2. Number of repetitions performed per set.

  3. Number of sets per exercise.

Velocity of muscle actionVelocity in seconds with ratio CON:ECC (eg, fast (<1:1), traditional (1:1), moderate (1–2:1–2), slow (5:5), very slow (10:5)) or based on breathing frequency.
Exercise selectionMultiple modalities (eg, free weights, machines, cords, etc) for targeted muscle groups can be performed in unilateral and bilateral single-joint and multiple-joint exercises. The used exercises should be specified (eg, leg extension, leg press).
Exercise orderThe sequencing of exercises (eg, based on a prescribed regimen, agonist/antagonist or single-joint/multiple-joint, rotation of upper and lower body).
Rest periods between setsThe amount of rest between sets may vary based on the complexity of the exercise and therefore both should be specified.
Longer rest periods for strength development (≥2–3 min) and shorter rest periods for improving muscle endurance (≤1 min).
Rest periods between exercisesThe amount of rest between exercises may vary based on the complexity of the exercise and therefore both should be specified.
FrequencyNumber of workouts per week.
  • RM, Repetition Maximum.