Table 1

Determinants of number of A&E attendances over the previous 12 months (n=3510)

Socioeconomic factorsAdjusted rate ratio of A&E attendanceAdjusted rate ratio 95% CIAbsolute risk difference of A&E attendanceAbsolute risk difference 95% CIUnadjusted rate ratios (95% CI)N (%)M (SD)
Demographics
 Age (65+) (years)858 (24.5)
 18–242.72**1.33 to 5.530.60*0.10 to 1.101.15 (0.70 to 1.88)368 (10.5)
 25–441.430.95 to 2.160.15−0.01 to 0. 310.83 (0.62 to 1.12)1226 (34.9)
 45–641.210.83 to 1.770.07−0.07 to 0. 211.18 (0.81 to 1.72)1057 (30.1)
 Gender (female)0.90.69 to 1.18−0.05−0.18 to 0. 080.89 (0.66 to 1.20)2029 (57.8)
 Ethnicity (BME)0.60.35 to 1.04−0.20*−0.37 to −0.030.40 (0.24 to.67)366 (10.5)
Socioeconomic status
 Education (no qualifications)1516 (43.3)
 Professional/vocational certificate1.58**1.17 to 2.140.20**0.07 to 0. 331.20 (0.88 to 1.63)1579 (45.1)
 Degree or higher2.00*1.15 to 3.480.35*0.02 to 0. 671.21 (0.71 to 2.07)405 (11.6)
 Non-employment (not in paid/self-employment)1.38*1.08 to 1.780.16**0.04 to 0. 272.20 (1.65 to 2.93)2150 (61.3)
 Index of multiple deprivation0.990.99 to 1.00−0.003−0.01 to 0. 0010.99 (0.99 to 1.01)47.20 (16.90)
 Financial struggle (‘doing well’)716 (20.4)
 ‘Getting by’10.72 to 1.40<0.001−0.16 to 0. 161.33 (0.96 to 1.86)2307 (65.8)
 ‘Struggling’1.220.75 to 1.980.1−0.16 to 0. 362.94 (1.78 to 4.85)481 (13.7)
 Financial situation worse than 12 months ago0.990.78 to 1.26−0.004−0.12 to 0. 111.49 (1.07 to 2.09)578 (16.6)
Housing quality
 Problems with condensation/mould/temperature1.34*1.01 to 1.760.14*0.01 to 0. 271.73 (1.26 to 2.38)1138 (33.7)
Health status
 Mobility problems (EQ5D)1.240.84 to 1.830.11−0.10 to 0. 323.54 (2.64 to 4.76)930 (73.5)
 Self-care problems (EQ5D)2.63***1.82 to 3.790.71***0.34, 1.095.58 (3.85 to 8.09)381 (10.9)
 Problems engaging in usual activities (EQ5D)1.43*1.01 to 2.030.19−0.02 to 0. 404.17 (3.12 to 5.57)852 (24.3)
 Pain (EQ5D)1.240.90 to 1.710.11−0.05 to 0. 273.30 (2.50 to 4.36)1325 (37.8)
 1 condition (base category: no condition)1.78**1.19 to 2.660.28**0.10 to 0. 453.19 (2.38 to 4.27)857 (24.4)
 >1 Condition (base category: 1 condition)1.020.67 to 1.550.01−0.19 to 0. 212.80 (2.08 to 3.77)1256 (35.8)
Mental health
 Depression (PHQ-9)1.36*1.01 to 1.830.15−0.003 to 0. 302.02 (1.72 to 2.37)1.56 (0.68)
 Anxiety (GAD-7)0.860.65 to 1.14−0.07−0.21 to 0. 061.75 (1.47 to 2.07)1.54 (0.75)
 Paranoia (PaDS-5)1.040.89 to 1.210.02−0.06 to 0. 091.41 (1.21 to 1.65)2.01 (0.89)
Social support
 Practical support0.930.47 to 1.85−0.03−0.36 to 0. 290.69 (0.30 to 1.59)3302 (94.3)
 Social contact1.080.70 to 1.700.04−0.17 to 0. 250.64 (0.31 to 1.31)3286 (94.0)
Healthcare access
 Distance to GP (km)1.46**1.12 to 1.900.18**0.06 to 0. 301.21 (0.96 to 1.53)0.99 (0.66)
 Distance to A&E (km)0.93***0.89 to 0. 97−0.03***−0.05 to −0.020.95 (0.91 to 0.99)7.12 (4.21)
  • Risk ratios and absolute risk differences are adjusted for all other variables in the model.

  • *p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001.

  • BME, Black and Minority Ethnic; EQ5D, Euroqol five dimensions; GAD-7, Generalised  Anxiety Disorder Assessment; PaDS-5, Persecution and Deservedness Scale; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire.