Table 2

Quality assessment for included reviews

Provides a priori designDuplicate data extractionSearch ≥2 databases plus another mode of searchingSearched for reports regardless of their publication typesIncluded a list of included studiesReports characteristics of individual studiesAssesses quality of studiesUses the scientific quality of the studies appropriatelyUses appropriate methods to combine the findings of studiesAssessed likelihood of publication biasIncludes conflict of interest statementOverall quality rating
Pearson and Biddle19 NYNNYNYYYNYlow
Hale and Guan24 NNYNYNNNYNYlow
Marsh et al 1 NNYYYYYYYNNmedium
Costigan et al 8 NNYNYYYYYNYmedium
Dutch et al 9 NYYNNYNNYNYlow
Goncalves de Oliveira et al 23 YYYNYYYYYYYhigh
Hoare et al 20 NYYNYYYYYNYmedium
Carson et al 17 YYYNYYYYYNYmedium
LeBlanc et al 18 YYYNYYYYYNYmedium
Tremblay et al 10 NYYYYYYYYNYmedium
van Ekris et al 11 NYYNYYYYYNYmedium
Suchert et al 21 NNYNYYYYYNYmedium
Wu et al 22 NYYYYYYYYYNmedium