Table 3

Baseline sociodemographic characteristics, health-related lifestyle factors, anthropometric information and laboratory measurements

CharacteristicsTotal
(n=2057)
Hypertensive
(n=1061)
Normotensive
(n=996)
P value
Age (years)*59.00 (54.00–63.00)58.00 (52.00–63.00)60.00 (55.00–64.00)<0.001†
Gender (female, %)‡1501 (73.0)747 (70.4)754 (75.7)0.007†
High school graduate and above (%)‡983 (50.2)478 (49.6)505 (50.8)0.621
Current cigarette smoking (%)‡310 (15.2)177 (17.0)133 (13.4)0.026†
Current alcohol consumption (%)‡963 (47.3)492 (47.3)471 (47.3)0.990
Waist circumference (cm)*88.00 (82.00–94.00)90.00 (85.00–96.80)86.00 (79.00–90.88)<0.001†
Hip circumference (cm)*98.82 (94.00–103.50)100.80 (96.00–105.65)97.00 (93.00–101.00)<0.001†
BMI (kg/m2)*25.92 (23.85–28.15)26.84 (24.86–29.02)25.15 (23.01–26.95)<0.001†
WHR*0.89 (0.85–0.93)0.89 (0.86–0.94)0.88 (0.84–0.92)<0.001†
FBG (mmol/L)*5.42 (4.99–6.18)5.59 (5.06–6.46)5.29 (4.92–5.90)<0.001†
TC (mmol/L)*5.04 (4.35–5.73)4.99 (4.20–5.70)5.09 (4.46–5.77)0.003†
TG (mmol/L)*1.63 (1.12–2.48)1.68 (1.17–1.68)1.55 (1.09–2.42)0.019†
LDL-C (mmol/L)*2.15 (1.48–2.86)1.93 (1.36–2.86)2.23 (1.57–2.86)0.001†
HDL-C (mmol/L)*1.44 (1.13–2.40)1.48 (1.13–2.40)1.39 (1.13–2.45)0.296
Baseline blood pressure
 SBP (mm Hg)*135.00 (122.50–147.50)142.00 (131.13–152.00)126.50 (115.50–138.50)<0.001†
 DBP (mm Hg)*78.50 (71.50–86.00)82.00 (75.50–89.50)74.50 (68.00–81.00)<0.001†
 MAP (mm Hg)*97.50 (89.33–105.83)102.00 (95.56–109.46)91.75 (84.88–100.13)<0.001†
Baseline spot urine sample
 Sodium concentration (mmol/L)*131.35 (97.78–162.00)125.00 (94.00–157.00)136.00 (104.00–164.78)<0.001†
 Potassium concentration (mmol/L)*63.50 (41.80–89.10)62.23 (42.04–87.36)65.58 (41.42–90.53)0.319
24-hour urine sample
 Urine volume (L)*1.41 (1.00–2.00)1.57 (1.00–2.20)1.20 (0.80–1.80)<0.001†
 Sodium excretion (mmol/day)*103.50 (70.18–146.03)103.25 (71.00–141.25)103.70 (69.00–151.15)<0.001†
 Potassium excretion (mmol/day)*31.02 (21.60–44.89)28.65 (20.45–39.70)34.20 (23.00–51.16)<0.001†
 Estimated salt intake (g/day)*8.01 (5.25–11.47)8.97 (6.31–12.50)6.87 (4.57–10.50)<0.001†
Disease and family history
 Diabetes (%)‡327 (15.9)224 (21.2)103 (10.3)<0.001†
 Obesity (%)‡538 (26.2)378 (35.6)160 (16.1)<0.001†
 Family history of hypertension (%)‡1145 (57.8)714 (72.4)431 (43.3)<0.001†
 Family history of diabetes (%)‡527 (26.6)285 (27.7)242 (24.3)0.084
Salt-sensitive blood pressure
 Salt sensitive (%)‡583 (28.3)302 (28.5)281 (28.2)0.900
  • *Mann-Whitney U test.

  • †Hypertension group compared with non-hypertension group, p<0.05.

  • ‡χ2 test.

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MAP, mean arterial pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; WHR, waist:hip ratio.