Table 2

Discriminative ability of the HSCS-PS between subgroups differing in birth outcomes: birth weight (n=4541) and gestational age at birth (n=4526)†

HSCS-PS domainsBirth weightGestational age
≥2500 g (n=4307)1500–2500 g (n=206)<1500 g (n=28)≥37 weeks (n=4256)32–37 weeks (n=239)<32 weeks (n=31)
Mean (SD)‡Mean (SD)‡Effect size§Mean (SD)‡Effect size¶Mean (SD)‡Mean (SD)‡Effect size††Mean (SD)‡Effect size‡‡
Original domains
 Vision1.01 (0.16)1.06 (0.37)**0.141.07 (0.38)0.161.01 (0.16)1.06 (0.35)**0.141.06 (0.36)0.14
 Hearing1.02 (0.14)1.02 (0.15)0.001.04 (0.19)0.111.02 (0.14)1.02 (0.14)0.001.03 (0.18)0.06
 Speech1.34 (0.51)1.35 (0.54)0.021.43 (0.57)0.161.34 (0.50)1.42 (0.58)0.141.48 (0.57)0.25
 Mobility1.02 (0.17)1.04 (0.22)0.091.11 (0.42)*0.211.02 (0.15)1.06 (0.34)**0.121.10 (0.40)*0.20
 Dexterity1.01 (0.10)1.03 (0.23)***0.091.00 (0.00)0.101.01 (0.09)1.04 (0.25)***0.121.00 (0.00)0.11
 Self-care1.11 (0.34)1.19 (0.50)*0.161.46 (0.84)**0.421.11 (0.34)1.18 (0.50)*0.141.45 (0.81)***0.42
 Emotion1.01 (0.08)1.00 (0.07)0.131.00 (0.00)0.131.01 (0.08)1.01 (0.09)0.001.00 (0.00)0.13
 Learning and remembering1.01 (0.13)1.05 (0.28)**0.141.18 (0.39)***0.441.01 (0.13)1.05 (0.27)**0.151.16 (0.37)***0.41
 Thinking and problem solving1.02 (0.17)1.07 (0.32)**0.161.14 (0.59)*0.201.02 (0.17)1.06 (0.34)*0.121.16 (0.58)**0.24
 Pain and discomfort1.12 (0.33)1.15 (0.35)0.091.14 (0.36)0.061.12 (0.33)1.15 (0.36)0.081.13 (0.34)0.03
 Disability score§§10.67 (1.05)10.98 (1.78)0.1711.57 (2.28)*0.3910.66 (1.03)11.05 (1.92)***0.2011.58 (2.17)**0.42
Additional domains
 General health1.05 (0.23)1.07 (0.29)0.071.32 (0.82)***0.331.04 (0.23)1.10 (0.35)**0.171.29 (0.78)***0.32
 Behaviour1.05 (0.23)1.07 (0.25)0.081.11 (0.32)0.191.05 (0.23)1.06 (0.24)0.041.10 (0.30)0.17
  • Cohen’s effect size (d): 0.2≤d<0.5 indicates a small difference, 0.5≤d<0.8 indicates a moderate difference, d≥0.8 indicates a large difference.

  • †Data are presented as mean or SD.

  • ‡Two-sided Mann-Whitney U-test given a non-normal distribution of the data.

  • §Difference of the means divided by the largest SD between children born with a moderately low birth weight and children born with a normal birth weight.

  • ¶Difference of the means divided by the largest SD between children born with a very low birth weight and children born with a normal birth weight.

  • ††Difference of the means divided by the largest SD between moderate to late preterm children and term children.

  • ‡‡Difference of the means divided by the largest SD between very preterm children and term children.

  • §§ Sum of the 10 original domains.

  • *P<0.05; 

  • **P<0.01; 

  • ***P<0.001.

  • HSCS-PS, Health Status Classification System-Preschool.