Table 2

Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of T2DM patients with or without kidney disease

Type of variablesVariableDKDNo DKDP value*
Demographic variables
Gender: female†70 (48.3)165 (62.3)0.006
Age (years)67.0±10.458.6±10.6<0.0001
Clinical variables
Clinical hypertension †96.674.3<0.0001
Dyslipidaemia †
Smoking history †32.424.20.07
Diabetes duration (years)16.0±9.210.1±7.3<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)31.3±6.032.5±6.30.078
Laboratory variables
Glycaemic indices Hemoglobin A1c (%)7.7±1.57.8±1.70.63
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)8.3±3.18.9±3.80.43
Random blood glucose (mmol/L)9.1±3.99.5±4.30.34
Lipids profile Total cholesterol (mmol/L)3.7±1.04.0±1.10.003
Triglyceride (mmol/L)1.5±0.81.6±0.80.25
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.2±0.61.2±0.50.45
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.9±0.82.1±0.90.01
Renal function indices Albumin:creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) 3.3/10.1/69.60.8/2.2/9.00.0001
Vitamin D (nmol/L)62.9±28.465.3±26.80.48
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)57.5±27.796.1±17.3<0.0001
Creatinine (µmol/L) 82/111/14655/64/76<0.0001
Urea (mmol/L)9.7±8.34.7±1.5<0.0001
  • *P value for continuous data, calculated using two-sided t-test except for albumin:creatinine ratio and creatinine where it is for Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. P value for percentage data calculated using Pearson χ2 test with exception of hypertension and dyslipidaemia where Fisher’s exact test was used.

  • † Proportional data shown as number of positive outcome and its percentage. All remaining continuous data shown as mean±SD except albumin:creatinine ratio and creatinine.

  • ‡For the albumin:creatinine ratio and creatinine analyses, summary statistics indicated by 25th/50th/75 quartiles and not as mean±SD because their distributions are highly skewed.

  • BMI, body mass index; DKD, diabetic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, high-density lipoprotein; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.