Type of variables | Variable | DKD | No DKD | P value* |

Demographic variables
| ||||

Gender: female† | 70 (48.3) | 165 (62.3) | 0.006 | |

Age (years) | 67.0±10.4 | 58.6±10.6 | <0.0001 | |

Clinical variables
| ||||

Clinical hypertension † | 96.6 | 74.3 | <0.0001 | |

Dyslipidaemia † | 95.2 | 90.9 | 0.17 | |

Smoking history † | 32.4 | 24.2 | 0.07 | |

Diabetes duration (years) | 16.0±9.2 | 10.1±7.3 | <0.0001 | |

BMI (kg/m^{2}) | 31.3±6.0 | 32.5±6.3 | 0.078 | |

Laboratory variables
| ||||

Glycaemic indices
| Hemoglobin A1c (%) | 7.7±1.5 | 7.8±1.7 | 0.63 |

Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) | 8.3±3.1 | 8.9±3.8 | 0.43 | |

Random blood glucose (mmol/L) | 9.1±3.9 | 9.5±4.3 | 0.34 | |

Lipids profile
| Total cholesterol (mmol/L) | 3.7±1.0 | 4.0±1.1 | 0.003 |

Triglyceride (mmol/L) | 1.5±0.8 | 1.6±0.8 | 0.25 | |

HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) | 1.2±0.6 | 1.2±0.5 | 0.45 | |

LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) | 1.9±0.8 | 2.1±0.9 | 0.01 | |

Renal function indices
| Albumin:creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) ‡ | 3.3/10.1/69.6 | 0.8/2.2/9.0 | 0.0001 |

Vitamin D (nmol/L) | 62.9±28.4 | 65.3±26.8 | 0.48 | |

eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m^{2}) | 57.5±27.7 | 96.1±17.3 | <0.0001 | |

Creatinine (µmol/L) ‡ | 82/111/146 | 55/64/76 | <0.0001 | |

Urea (mmol/L) | 9.7±8.3 | 4.7±1.5 | <0.0001 |

*P value for continuous data, calculated using two-sided t-test except for albumin:creatinine ratio and creatinine where it is for Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. P value for percentage data calculated using Pearson χ

^{2}test with exception of hypertension and dyslipidaemia where Fisher’s exact test was used.† Proportional data shown as number of positive outcome and its percentage. All remaining continuous data shown as mean±SD except albumin:creatinine ratio and creatinine.

↵‡For the albumin:creatinine ratio and creatinine analyses, summary statistics indicated by 25th/50th/75 quartiles and not as mean±SD because their distributions are highly skewed.

BMI, body mass index; DKD, diabetic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, high-density lipoprotein; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.