Table 3

Existing classification frameworks that correspond with the research questions

Research questionExisting classification framework to be appliedHow the classification framework will be applied
What is the total number of studies published by year?Not specifiedThe year that the eligible study was published will be captured.
What terms are being used to describe the nature of the research?Not specifiedThe terminology used by study authors to describe the aims or methodologies used in their study will be captured for example, infoveillance, netnography, social listening.
Which academic communities are most active in conducting health research studies that use data from social media?Scimago Journal Subject Areas40 including 27 subject areas including medicine, computer science, health professions, business management and accounting as well as social sciences.The journal in which eligible study is published, along with the affiliation of all authors as well as any sources of funding for the study (if shown) will be classified according to the disciplinary taxonomy used by the Scimago Journal ranking portal. These categories are not mutually exclusive.
Where is the affiliation of the first author located?World Bank Regional and Lending Groups for Countries includes seven regions and four lending groups.41 The geographical location of the first author conducting the eligible study will be classified according to the regional and lending groups provided by the World Bank for 2017. These categories are not mutually exclusive.
What is the geographical scope of the sample of social media data analysed in the study?World Bank Regional and Lending Groups for Countries includes seven regions and four lending groups.41 The geographical location of the population sample analysed within the study will be classified according to the regional and lending groups provided by the World Bank for 2017. These categories are not mutually exclusive.
What is the purpose for which social media data are being used in the research?Not specifiedThe purpose of the eligible study will be captured.
Which health topics are being studied?The 19 health-related topics which inform the WHO’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).42 The type of condition and health topic being studied in the eligible study will be classified according to the list of health-related topics, which inform the WHO SDG. These categories are not mutually exclusive.
Which social media are used as a source of data?Kaplan and Haenlein’s eight types of social media.1 The type of social media from which the data for the eligible study was sourced will be classified according to Kaplan and Haenlein’s eight types of social media. The name of the social media will also be captured.
How large are the studies and what is the unit of analysis applied?Not specifiedThe sample size and unit of analysis of the eligible study will be captured.
How is the data from social media extracted and analysed and which proprietary tools were used?Several types of analysis may be performed on social media data, ranging from simple descriptive statistics to qualitative research to automated real-time analytics at scale as described by Batrinca and Treleaven.43 These types of analysis have been described in terms of computational techniques, such as natural language processing and purposive approaches such as news analytics, opinion mining, data scraping, sentiment analysis and text analytics to name but a few.Batrinca and Treleaven taxonomy of social media analysis techniques will be used to guide our classification of the broad approaches and specific techniques demonstrated in the eligible studies. This taxonomy may be refined as a result of new insights emerging during data extraction. We will also capture the named type of analysis performed in the eligible study as well as any reference to proprietary tools used.
How are ethical considerations applied in the published research?Conway’s taxonomy of ethics concepts for the use of Twitter in public health surveillance and research44 and can be applied across all manner of social media.The application of ethical concepts in the eligible studies will be classified according to the 10 high level categories identified by Conway. These categories are not mutually exclusive.