Table 3

Risk factors for the development of kidney disease in patients with T2DM from the UAE

CovariateOR 95% CIP values
Age0.990.96 to 1.040.80
Gender0.900.34 to 2.360.83
BMI1.020.97 to 1.080.49
Hypertension2.000.60 to 6.740.26
HbA1c0.860.69 to 1.070.19
Cholesterol0.590.19 to 1.760.34
Triglyceride1.090.62 to 1.940.76
HDL-cholesterol1.250.64 to 2.450.52
LDL-cholesterol1.380.42 to 4.570.60
Smoking history0.800.34 to 1.870.61
Creatinine1.031.00 to 1.06 0.03
Urea1.130.92 to 1.380.26
eGFR0.970.94 to 1.000.09
Diabetes duration (years)*
5–100.750.26 to 2.160.59
11–151.490.56 to 3.910.42
16–203.351.22 to 9.23 0.02
>203.121.21 to 8.02 0.02
  • *Diabetes duration reference is duration ≤5 years

  • BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; UAE, United Arab Emirates.