Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the aortic PVL cohort (n=588)

CharacteristicsSAVR (n=214)TAVR (n=374)P values
Age, years72±1381±8 <0.0001
Male sex150 (70)222 (59) 0.009
Clinical data
 Median STS score (IQR), %3.0 (1.8–5.0)7.9 (5.5–10.9) <0.0001
 NYHA class III/IV153 (72)334 (89) <0.0001
 Atrial fibrillation43 (20)126 (34) 0.0004
 Diabetes57 (27)146 (39) 0.002
 Hypertension158 (74)336 (90) <0.0001
 Coronary artery disease121 (57)267 (71) 0.0003
 Previous CABG94 (44)158 (42)0.69
 Cerebrovascular accident16 (7)92 (25) <0.0001
 Peripheral vascular disease32 (15)221 (59) <0.0001
 Creatinine level, mg/dL1.13±0.51.28±0.7 0.003
 Chronic obstructive lung disease30 (14)231 (62) <0.0001
 Mediastinal radiation9 (4)24 (6)0.25
 Chronic liver disease/cirrhosis7 (3)13 (3)0.89
Surgical/Procedural data
 Procedural indications
  Aortic stenosis186 (87)365 (98)
   Aortic regurgitation13 (6)0 (0)
  Bioprosthetic dysfunction15 (7)9 (2)
 Valve type*Mechanical 53 (25)
Bioprosthesis 161 (75)
Sapien
Sapien XT
Sapien S3
CoreValve
211 (57)
83 (22)
53 (14)
27 (7)
 Median valve size (range), mm23 (19–29)26 (20–31)
   <26 199 (93)121 (32)
  ≥2615 (7)253 (68) <0.0001
Echocardiographic data
 PVL severity
  ≤Mild195 (91)247 (66)
  Mild-moderate or moderate13 (6)112 (30)
  >Moderate6 (3)15 (4) <0.0001
 Prosthetic regurgitation67 trivial; 13 mild96 trivial; 18 mild0.10
 LVEF, %59±1157±12 0.03
 ≥Moderate RV dysfunction19 (9)35 (10)0.79
 ≥Moderate MR13 (6)81 (22) <0.0001
 ≥Moderate TR25 (12)101 (28) <0.0001
 RVSP ≥50 mm Hg22 (11)105 (29) <0.0001
 LV mass index, g/m2 118±32125±32 0.009
 Mean aortic prosthesis gradient, mm Hg16±712±5 <0.0001
 Aortic prosthesis EOA, cm2 1.98±0.62.24±0.7 <0.0001
  • Unless otherwise specified, values are mean±SD or n (%). Statistically significant p-values were typed in bold.

  • *In patients undoing SAVR, the mechanical valves used were On-X (n=3; 1%), Carbomedics (n=29; 14%) and St Jude (n=21; 10%) valves, while the bioprosthetic valves used were Trifecta (n=33; 15%), Perceval (n=5; 3%), Hancock (n=9; 4%), CE Perimount (n=52; 24%), Mitroflow (n=54; 25%) and St Jude Epic (n=8; 4%) valves.

  • CABG,coronary artery bypass grafting; EOA, effective orifice area; LV, left ventricle; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MR, mitral regurgitation; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PVL, paravalvular leak; RV, right ventricle; RVSP, right ventricular systolic pressure; SAVR, surgical aortic valve replacement; STS, Society of Thoracic Surgeons; TAVR, transcatheter aortic valve replacement; TR, tricuspid regurgitation.