Table 2

Factors* associated with linkage to hypertension care within 2 years after home-based diagnosis of hypertension† in 2010, among individuals who were previously undiagnosed and participated in 2011 or 2012 (n=1199) (unweighted analysis)

Linked to care/N (%)Crude OR (95% CI)Age and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)‡
Sociodemographic factors
 Age groupP<0.001P<0.001P<0.001
  <3010/193 (5.2 %)111
  35–4440/242 (16.5%)3.62 (1.76 to 7.45)3.08 (1.49 to 6.36)3.32 (1.60 to 6.89)
  45–59126/360 (35.0%)9.85 (5.03 to 19.30)8.39 (4.26 to 16.51)9.01 (4.57 to 17.79)
  60+167/404 (41.3%)12.89 (6.62 to 25.11)11.61 (5.94 to 22.69)11.49 (5.87 to 22.46)
 SexP<0.001P<0.001P<0.001
  Male47/308 (15.3%)111
  Female296/891 (33.2%)2.76 (1.97 to 3.88)2.50 (1.75 to 3.57)2.41 (1.68 to 3.45)
 Marital statusP<0.001P=0.15P=0.14
  Single (never married)55/250 (22.0%)111
  Married/informal union178/666 (26.7%)1.29 (0.92 to 1.83)1.33 (0.91 to 1.95)1.35 (0.92 to 1.98)
  Widow/separated/divorced110/283 (38.9%)2.25 (1.54 to 3.31)0.98 (0.64 to 1.50)0.99 (0.65 to 1.51)
 EducationP<0.001P=0.83P=0.77
  None132/363 (36.4%)111
  Less than complete secondary160/581 (27.5%)0.67 (0.50 to 0.88)1.10 (0.81 to 1.49)1.09 (0.80 to 1.49)
  Complete secondary/above51/255 (20.0%)0.44 (0.30 to 0.64)1.09 (0.71 to 1.67)1.15 (0.75 to 1.78)
 EmployedP<0.001P=0.02P=0.02
  Yes31/178 (17.4%)111
  No312/1021 (30.6%)2.09 (1.39 to 3.14)1.71 (1.10 to 2.65)1.71 (1.10 to 2.65)
 SES tertileP=0.307P=0.31P=0.21
  Low125/459 (27.2%)111
  Middle99/364 (27.2%)1.00 (0.73 to 1.36)1.09 (0.79 to 1.52)1.12 (0.81 to 1.56)
  High115/364 (31.6%)1.23 (0.91 to 1.67)1.28 (0.93 to 1.77)1.34 (0.97 to 1.85)
Location factors
 ResidenceP=0.04P=0.35P=0.55
  Urban10/36 (27.8%)111
  Periurban95/398 (23.9%)0.82 (0.38 to 1.75)0.75 (0.33 to 1.69)0.67 (0.29 to 1.53)
  Rural238/765 (31.1%)1.17 (0.56 to 2.47)0.92 (0.41 to 2.05)0.63 (0.27 to 1.45)
 Nearest clinic§P<0.001P=0.001P=0.001
   Per each km of distance1.15 (1.08 to 1.23)¶1.13 (1.05 to 1.21)¶1.12 (1.05 to 1.20)¶
  0-<1.556/263 (21.3%)
  1.5–2.571/269 (26.4%)
  >2.5–3.993/310 (30.0%)
  >3.9123/357 (34.5%)
Clinical factors
 BMI categoryP<0.001P=0.07P=0.13
  <25 kg/m2 70/344 (20.3%)111
  25 ‒<30 kg/m2 62/229 (27.1%)1.45 (0.98 to 2.15)1.08 (0.71 to 1.64)1.17 (0.76 to 1.81)
  ≥30 kg/m2 110/301 (36.5%)2.25 (1.59 to 3.21)1.52 (1.03 to 2.24)1.51 (1.00 to 2.26)
 Hypertension stage**P<0.001P<0.001P<0.001
  Stage I142/730 (19.5%)111
  Stage II134/342 (39.2%)2.67 (2.01 to 3.54)2.22 (1.65 to 2.99)2.20 (1.63 to 2.97)
  Hypertension urgency67/127 (52.8%)4.62 (3.12 to 6.85)3.12 (2.06 to 4.74)3.07 (2.01 to 4.67)
 Self-report of diabetes††P=0.19P=0.44P=0.47
  No339/1191 (28.5%)111
  Yes4/8 (50.0%)2.51 (0.62 to 10.11)1.78 (0.41 to 7.70)1.75 (0.38 to 8.15)
 Self-report of TB††P=0.66P=0.96P=0.72
  No332/1156 (28.7%)111
  Yes11/43 (25.6%)0.85 (0.43 to 1.71)1.02 (0.49 to 2.13)1.15 (0.54 to 2.46)
  • *All characteristics are based on 2010 survey.

  • †Hypertension defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg, in an average of two readings.

  • ‡Sociodemographic factors adjusted for age group, sex and employment. Location factors adjusted for age group, sex, employment and distance from nearest clinic as continuous covariate. Clinical factors adjusted for age group, sex, employment, distance from nearest clinic and hypertension stage.

  • §Quartiles based on distribution in all individuals who were eligible for 2010 survey. Fit as continuous covariate; n (%) linked in each distance quartile shown for information only.

  • ¶OR for linear trend in linkage with each 1 km increase in distance.

  • **Stage I: systolic BP 140‒159 or diastolic BP 90‒99; stage II: systolic BP 160‒179 or diastolic BP 100‒119; hypertension urgency: systolic BP ≥180 or diastolic BP ≥120.

  • ††Reports being diagnosed in the past 12 months or currently on treatment.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; TB, tuberculosis.