Table 5

Determinants of impoverishment and catastrophic expenditure due to OOP payments for overall ANC and delivery care (n=757)

CharacteristicImpoverishmentCatastrophic expenditure
Adjusted OR (95% Cl)Adjusted OR (95% Cl)
Woman’s occupation
  Other (ref)11
  Housewife4.81 (1.91 to 12.12)***2.18 (1.16 to 4.10)*
Number of household members
 >5 (ref)11
  3–57.13 (2.77 to 18.33)***7.82 (4.41 to 13.89)***
Number of ANC visits
 1–3 (ref)11
 4–61.26 (0.35 to 4.52)2.06 (0.99 to 4.31)
 >65.73 (1.90 to 17.26)**5.63 (2.96 to 10.70)***
Health personnel for delivery care
  Community health personnel (ref)11
  Specialists2.97 (1.14 to 7.76)*4.83 (2.24 to 10.44)***
  Doctors/nurses2.22 (0.78 to 6.33)3.45 (1.64 to 7.27)**
Place of antenatal care
  Public facilities (ref)11
  Private facilities2.46 (1.14 to 5.32)*2.42 (1.40 to 4.17)**
Place of delivery care
  Public facilities (ref)1
  Private facilities3.29 (1.41 to 7.70)**
  • *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001.

  • ANC, antenatal care; OOP, out-of-pocket.