Table 1

Transcription notation key 

Transcription notationMeaning
(.)Just discernable pause
(0.3), (2.2)Timed pause (in tenths of a second)
↑ or ↓Onset of momentary notable pitch rise or fall
Speaker A: [word]
Speaker B: [word]
Onset and close of overlapping talk
.hh/hhHearable intake of breath/out breath (may be elongated)
wo(h)rdLaughter within word
wor-Sharp cut-off
wo:rdStretch of preceding sound
(word)Transcriber’s best guess at an unclear word or speech particle
()Unclear speech
Speaker A: word=
Speaker B:=word
No discernable beat of silence between turns (latching)
wordStress on underlined element
WORDCapitals indicate words spoken hearably louder than surrounding speech
>word< <word> Speed change— inward-facing arrows show faster speech, outward show slower
°word°Words that are spoken more quietly than surrounding speech
((words))Transcriber’s description of some other sound in the recording for example, ((typing))
  • Adapted from G. Jefferson, ‘Transcription Notation’24.