Table 6

Characteristics of original articles and reviews with plagiarism (n=495)

CharacteristicOverall plagiarism n (%)
Any (%)Some (%)Moderate (%)Extensive (%)
Impact factor
 Yes (n=45)23 (51)9 (20)10 (22)4 (9)
 No (n=450)290 (64)125 (28)86 (19)79 (18)
Open access
 Yes (n=342)206 (60)85 (25)64 (19)57 (17)
 No (n=153)107 (70)49 (32)32 (21)26 (17)
Scope general
 Yes (n=239)171 (72)71 (30)58 (24)42 (18)
 No (n=256)142 (55)63 (25)38 (15)41 (16)
Member of African Journals Partnership Project
 Yes (n=35)22 (63)12 (34)6 (17)4 (11)
 No (n=460)291 (63)122 (27)90 (20)79 (17)
Plagiarism policy available
 Yes (n=127)69 (54)31 (24)21 (17)17 (13)
 No (n=368)244 (66)103 (28)75 (20)66 (18)
Reference to text matching software
 Yes (n=80)34 (43)18 (23)11 (14)5 (6)
 No (n=415)279 (67)116 (28)85 (20)78 (19)
Commercial publisher
 Yes (n=205)112 (55)51 (25)33 (16)28 (14)
 No (n=290)201 (69)83 (29)63 (22)55 (19)
Country of corresponding author
 Nigeria (n=250)175 (70)63 (25)63 (25)49 (20)
 South Africa (n=83)32 (39)19 (23)6 (7)7 (8)
 Other African country (n=99)67 (68)33 (33)17 (17)17 (17)
 Non-African country (n=63)39 (62)19 (30)10 (16)10 (16)
Type of study
 Cross sectional study (n=247)164 (66)78 (32)50 (20)36 (15)
 Retrospective study (n=65)40 (62)22 (34)10 (15)8 (12)
 Case report (n=42)27 (62)10 (24)9 (21)8 (19)
 Trial (n=36)23 (64)6 (17)10 (28)7 (19)
 Cohort study (n=22)9 (41)1 (5)4 (18)4 (18)
 Review (n=21)14 (67)4 (19)010 (48)
 Case control study (n=12)8 (67)05 (42)3 (25)
 Case series (n=12)5 (42)3 (25)02 (17)
 Qualitative study (n=9)6 (67)3 (33)3 (33)0
 Laboratory study (n=8)6 (75)2 (25)2 (25)2 (25)
 Mixed methods (n=7)2 (29)1 (14)01 (14)
 Before–after (n=7)3 (43)2 (29)1 (14)0
 Controlled before–after (n=7)6 (86)2 (29)2 (29)2 (29)