Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the study population overall and by CKD (MDRD and CKD-EPI) status

VariablesTotal (n=1564)MDRDCKD-EPI
Without CKD
(n=1470)
CKD
(n=94)
P valuesWithout CKD
(n=1517)
CKD
(n=47)
P values
Age (years)50 (37–61)49 (36–59)68 (62–74)<0.000150 (36–60)69 (63–77)<0.0001
Gender (n, % male)389 (24.9)372 (25.3)17 (18.1)0.215373 (24.6)16 (34.0)0.093
Anthropometry
 Weight (kg)72.0 (59.2–85.5)71.9 (59.0–85.5)74.0 (64.6–85.8)0.205872.0 (59.2–85.5)73.5 (64.1–85.7)0.6903
 WC (cm)91.8 (78.5–103.5)91.2 (77.8–103.0)97.7 (89.0–105.8)0.000191.5 (78.1–103.5)96.0 (87.8–106.5)0.0225
 HC (cm)102.8 (92.5–113.5)102.5 (92.1–113.5)104.3 (96.5–114.2)0.1138102.8 (92.5–113.8)101.5 (95.8–111.5)0.9439
 BMI (kg/m2)28.4 (22.9–34.2)28.3 (22.7–34.1)30.3 (26.1–35.1)0.009628.4 (22.9–34.2)28.3 (24.7–34.4)0.3836
Biochemical analysis
 Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L)5.0 (4.6–5.7)5.0 (4.6–5.6)5.3 (5.0–6.9)<0.00015.0 (4.6–5.6)5.3 (5.0–7.7)0.0014
 2Hour glucose (mmol/L)6.0 (4.9–7.6)6.0 (4.8–7.5)7.2 (5.8–9.2)<0.00016.0 (4.8–7.5)7.5 (5.7–9.2)0.0034
 HbA1c (%)5.8 (5.4–6.3)5.7 (5.4–6.2)6.2 (5.9–7.1)<0.00015.8 (5.4–6.2)6.4 (5.9–7.3)<0.0001
 Fasting insulin (IU/L)6.7 (4.3–11.1)6.7 (4.2–10.9)8.4 (5.3–12.4)0.00896.7 (4.2–10.9)9.0 (5.3–12.4)0.0323
 2-Hour insulin (IU/L)38 (20.6–71.8)37.5 (19.8–69.8)62.0 (30.3–105.6)0.000237.8 (20.3–70.5)63.5 (32.6–105.2)0.0072
 HOMA-IR (MU)1.6 (0.9–2.9)1.6 (0.9–2.8)2.1 (1.2–3.9)0.00041.6 (0.9–2.8)2.4 (1.3–3.8)0.0026
 hsCRP (µg/mL)4.0 (1.6–8.8)4.0 (1.6–8.8)4.7 (2.7–9.3)0.04924.0 (1.6–8.8)4.8 (2.4–7.5)0.4268
 TG (mmol/L)1.2 (0.9–1.7)1.2 (0.9–1.7)1.6 (1.2–2.3)<0.00011.2 (0.9–1.7)1.8 (1.1–2.4)0.0001
 TC (mmol/L)5.1 (4.4–5.9)5.1 (4.3–5.9)5.4 (4.8–6.4)0.00245.1 (4.4–5.9)5.3 (4.4–6.0)0.2226
 LDL-C (mmol/L)3.1 (2.5–3.8)3.1 (2.5–3.8)3.2 (2.7–4.3)0.06683.1 (2.5–3.8)3.1 (2.5–3.9)0.9444
 HDL-C (mmol/L)1.3 (1.1–1.5)1.3 (1.1–1.5)1.3 (1.1–1.5)0.71061.3 (1.1–1.5)1.3 (1.1–1.4)0.5132
 Creatinine (µmol/L)60 (52–70)59 (51–68)111.5 (89.0–140.5)<0.000159 (51–69)140 (124–209)<0.0001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)-104.0 (88.0–121.0)48.2 (33.7–55.4)<0.0001113.9 (101.4–126.5)44.7 (26.4–49.6)<0.0001
Blood pressure measures
 Mean SBP (mm Hg)125 (111–141)125 (110–140)142 (121–162)<0.0001125 (111–140)150 (128–181)<0.0001
 Mean DBP (mm Hg)81 (72–90)81 (72–90)81 (74–95)0.211481 (72–90)85 (73–95)0.2185
 Pulse pressure (BPM)70 (62–79)70 (62–79)70 (60–81)0.993270 (62–79)73 (62–82)0.3861
Comorbidities
 Overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2; n (%))361 (23.2)335 (22.9)26 (29.5)0.139348 (23.1)13 (28.9)0.348
 Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2; n (%))662 (42.6)617 (42.1)45 (51.1)0.085642 (42.5)20 (44.4)0.771
 Pre-diabetes, n (%)238 (15.2)226 (15.4)12 (12.8)0.671233 (15.4)5 (10.6)0.436
 T2D, n (%)297 (19.0)259 (17.6)38 (40.4)<0.0001272 (17.9)25 (53.2)<0.0001
 Hypertension, n (%)567 (36.3)517 (35.2)50 (53.2)<0.0001537 (35.4)30 (63.3)<0.0001
  • Data is presented as median (25th-75th percentiles) and percentages.

  • BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, Glycated haemoglobin; HC, hip circumference; HDL-C, high-density lipoproteins; HOMA-IR, Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; hsCRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; IFG/IGT, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance; LDL-C, low-density lipoproteins; MU, mass units; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; T2D, type 2 diabetes mellitus; WC, waist circumference.