Table 1

Descriptive characteristics and job start of the SOPIE cohort by benefit type

Benefit typeJSA clientsESA clients
No. of clientsNo. of clients with job start (% of each category with job start)No. of clientsNo. of clients with job start (% of each category with job start)
(% of total JSA clients)(% of total ESA clients)
89965612 (62.4%)4322867 (20.1%)
Individual factors
Age (years)
 <507590 (84.4%)4919 (64.8%)3000 (69.4%)685 (22.8%)
 >501406 (15.6%)693 (49.3%)1322 (30.6%)182 (13.8%)
Gender
 Male5799 (64.5%)3754 (64.7%)2260 (52.3%)450 (19.9%)
 Female3197 (35.5%)1858 (58.1%)2062 (47.7%)417 (20.2%)
Length of prior unemployment
 0–6 months638 (7.1%)476 (74.6%)128 (3.0%)73 (57.0%)
 7–12 months2034 (22.6%)1498 (73.7%)264 (6.1%)118 (44.7%)
 1–2 years3510 (39.0%)2416 (68.3%)733 (17.0%)261 (35.6%)
 3–5 years1072 (11.9%)571 (53.3%)802 (18.6%)173 (21.6%)
 6–10 years886 (9.9%)399 (45.0%)885 (20.5%)119 (13.5%)
 11+ years856 (9.5%)252 (29.4%)1510 (34.9%)123 (8.2%)
Highest qualification
 Degree or higher580 (6.5%)436 (75.2%)165 (3.8%)64 (38.8%)
 A levels/NVQ level 3 and equivalent1443 (16.0%)1006 (69.7%)480 (11.1%)149 (31.0%)
 Five or more GCSEs grades A*–C and equivalent1564 (17.4%)1094 (70.0%)468 (10.8%)134 (28.6%)
 Under 5 GCSEs A*–C and equivalent2145 (23.8%)1317 (61.4%)975 (22.6%)185 (19.0%)
 Below GSCE level3264 (36.3%)1759 (53.9%)2234 (51.7%)335 (15.0%)
Ethnicity
 White British7950 (88.4%)4906 (61.7%)4062 (94.0%)813 (20.0%)
 Other1046 (11.4%)706 (67.5%)260 (6.0%)54 (20.8%)
Have health concerns which believe will affect ability to work
 No7247 (80.6%)4984 (68.8%)255 (5.9%)126 (49.4%)
 Yes1749 (19.4%)628 (35.9%)4067 (94.1%)741 (18.2%)
Number of health conditions disclosed
 06365 (70.8%)4399 (69.1%)
 0 and 11290 (29.8%)381 (29.5%)
 11727 (19.2%)905 (52.4%)
 2608 (6.8%)239 (39.3%)1396 (32.3%)296 (21.2%)
 3896 (20.7%)123 (13.7%)
 3 or more296 (3.3%)69 (23.3%)
 4425 (9.8%)40 (9.4%)
 5 or more315 (7.3%)27 (8.6%)
Client perception of job start—When do you see yourself starting work?
 Within 1 month2188 (24.3%)1646 (75.2%)92 (2.1%)56 (60.9%)
 2–3 months3268 (36.3%)2258 (69.1%)248 (5.7%)142 (57.3%)
 4–6 months875 (9.7%)486 (55.5%)262 (6.1%)117 (44.7%)
 >6 months397 (4.4%)115 (29.0%)1302 (30.1%)140 (10.8%)
 Do not know2268 (25.2%)1107 (48.8%)2418 (56.0%)412 (17.0%)
Personal circumstances
Caring responsibility for anyone other than children
 No8561 (95.2%)5398 (63.0%)4046 (93.6%)822 (20.3%)
 Yes435 (4.8%)214 (49.2%)273 (6.4%)45 (16.3%)
Housing
 Homeowner401 (4.5%)261 (65.1%)323 (7.5%)95 (29.4%)
 Living with family3049 (33.9%)2155 (69.4%)609 (14.1%)146 (24.0%)
 Rented private1304 (14.5%)850 (65.2%)563 (13.0%)126 (22.4%)
 Rented social3853 (42.8%)2212 (57.4%)2655 (61.4%)469 (17.7%)
 Insecure389 (4.3%)174 (44.7%)172 (4.0%)31 (18.0%)
Parental status
 No children4892 (54.4%)3218 (65.8%)1693 (39.2%)329 (19.4%)
 Children, two parent family622 (6.9%)406 (65.3%)288 (6.7%)89 (30.9%)
 Children, shared custody/not living with you1254 (13.9%)735 (58.6%)711 (16.5%)145 (20.4%)
 Children, lone parent family1369 (15.2%)800 (58.4%)597 (13.8%)135 (22.6%)
 Children, adults living at home/adults not living at home859 (9.6%)453 (52.7)1033 (23.9%)169 (16.4%)
External factors
SIMD quintiles
 1 (most deprived)4779 (53.1%)2899 (60.7%)2362 (54.7%)411 (17.4%)
 22075 (23.1%)1302 (62.8%)1013 (23.4%)219 (21.6%)
 31151 (12.8%)707 (61.4%)550 (12.7%)130 (23.6%)
 4603 (6.7%)419 (69.5%)226 (5.2%)57 (25.2%)
 5 (least deprived)388 (4.3%)285 (73.5%)171 (4.0%)50 (29.2%)
Sixfold urban rural classification
 1 Large urban areas4573 (50.8%)2891 (63.2%)2578 (59.7%)467 (18.1%)
 2 Other urban areas3176 (35.3%)1962 (61.8%)1237 (28.6%)275 (22.2%)
 3 Accessible small towns623 (6.9%)395 (63.4%)232 (5.4%)57 (24.6%)
 4 Remote small towns173 (1.9%)87 (50.3%)69 (1.6%)20 (29.0%)
 5 Accessible rural333 (3.7%)211 (63.4%)151 (3.5%)38 (25.2%)
 6 Remote rural118 (1.3%)66 (55.9%)55 (1.3%)10 (18.2%)
  • Test of association on all variables and benefit type, p<0.001, except for test of association on SIMD quintiles and benefit type, p<0.05.

  • ESA, Employment and Support Allowance; GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; JSA, Jobseeker’s Allowance; NVQ, National Vocational Qualification; SIMD, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation; SOPIE, Supporting Older people into Employment.