Table 4

Associations between different forms of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) reported in 1996–2000 and hospital admissions in 1999/2000–2009 in 17 939 British people over the age of 40

CharacteristicIRR and 95% CI
GAD type
Frequent GAD
 Yes*1.07 (0.91 to 1.27)†
 No1.00
Chronic GAD
 Yes‡1.07 (0.85 to 1.35)†
 No1.00
Early age GAD onset
 Yes§1.16 (0.95 to 1.41)†
 No1.00
Comorbid GAD1.23 (1.02 to 1.49)†
 Yes¶1.00
 No
Sociodemographics
Age
 Per 10 years1.22 (1.18 to 1.25)1.21 (1.18 to 1.25)1.22 (1.18 to 1.25)1.21 (1.17 to 1.25)
Sex
 Women0.78 (0.74 to 0.81)0.78 (0.74 to 0.81)0.78 (0.74 to 0.81)0.78 (0.75 to 0.82)
 Men1.001.001.001.00
Education**
 Low1.10 (1.06 to 1.16)1.11 (1.06 to 1.16)1.10 (1.06 to 1.16)1.12 (1.07 to 1.18)
 High1.001.001.001.00
Marital status
 Single0.84 (0.76 to 0.94)0.84 (0.76 to 0.94)0.84 (0.76 to 0.94)0.83 (0.74 to 0.93)
 Married1.001.001.001.00
 Other††1.10 (1.03 to 1.16)1.09 (1.03 to 1.16)1.09 (1.03 to 1.16)1.03 (0.97 to 1.10)
Social class
 Manual1.21 (1.16 to 1.26)1.21 (1.16 to 1.26)1.21 (1.16 to 1.26)1.21 (1.16 to 1.27)
 Non-manual1.001.001.001.00
Employment
 Yes1.001.001.001.00
 No1.15 (1.09 to 1.21)1.15 (1.09 to 1.21)1.15 (1.09 to 1.21)1.17 (1.11 to 1.24)
Health status
Physical conditions‡‡
 Yes1.17 (1.13 to 1.23)1.17 (1.13 to 1.23)1.17 (1.13 to 1.23)1.17 (1.12 to 1.22)
 No1.001.001.001.00
Disability level
 High§§1.48 (1.42 to 1.55)1.48 (1.42 to 1.55)1.48 (1.42 to 1.55)1.48 (1.42 to 1.55)
 Low1.001.001.001.00
Psychiatric conditions
Past-year MDD
 Yes1.32 (1.20 to 1.45)1.33 (1.22 to 1.46)1.33 (1.21 to 1.46)
 No1.001.001.00
Lifestyle
Physical activity
 Active¶¶1.001.001.001.02 (0.97 to 1.07)
 Inactive1.04 (1.00 to 1.09)1.04 (1.00 to 1.09)1.04 (1.00 to 1.09)1.00
Smoking status
 Current smoker1.51 (1.41 to 1.62)1.51 (1.41 to 1.62)1.51 (1.41 to 1.62)1.56 (1.45 to 1.68)
 Former smoker1.13 (1.08 to 1.18)1.13 (1.08 to 1.18)1.13 (1.08 to 1.18)1.14 (1.09 to 1.19)
 Never-smoker1.001.001.001.00
Alcohol intake
 High***0.92 (0.88 to 0.96)0.92 (0.88 to 0.96)0.92 (0.88 to 0.96)0.93 (0.89 to 0.98)
 Low1.001.001.001.00
  • *3+ episodes of lifetime GAD.

  • †Adjusted for sociodemographics, physical conditions, disability, MDD, physical activity, smoking, alcohol.

  • ‡GAD episodes lasted at least 6 months.

  • §GAD developed before 30 years of age.

  • ¶GAD-MDD comorbidity.

  • **High education: O-level, A-level, degree; low education: refers to no education.

  • ††Other: divorced, separated, widowed.

  • ‡‡Physical conditions: respiratory disease (asthma and bronchitis), allergies and hay fever, stroke, heart attack, cancer, diabetes, thyroid conditions, arthritis.

  • §§Below the physical component summary score value of 50.6.

  • ¶¶Moderately inactive, moderately active, active.

  • ***3+ units of alcohol/week (one pint beer=two units, one glass wine=one unit, one glass sherry=one unit, one glass spirit=one unit).

  • IRR, incidence rate ratio; MDD, major depressive disorder.