Table 3

Linear regression models controlling for fixed effect municipalities

Total population (n=9 851 017)First sample (n=7 692 826)Second sample (n=3 680 337)
Crude modelFull modelCrude modelFull modelCrude modelFull model
Income per adult in household
 2nd quantile0.013 (0.0006)0.009 (0.0006)0.015 (0.0007)0.011 (0.0007)0.012 (0.0011)0.011 (0.0011)
 3rd quantile0.022 (0.0006)0.017 (0.0006)0.027 (0.0007)0.020 (0.0008)0.022 (0.0011)0.019 (0.0012)
 4th quantile0.031 (0.0006)0.025 (0.0007)0.038 (0.0008)0.030 (0.0008)0.032 (0.0011)0.030 (0.0012)
 5th quantile0.049 (0.0006)0.042 (0.0007)0.059 (0.0008)0.051 (0.0008)0.059 (0.0011)0.054 (0.0012)
Sickness benefits0.014 (0.0006)0.009 (0.0006)0.017 (0.0007)0.012 (0.0007)0.021 (0.0010)0.015 (0.0011)
Level of education
 Primary education
 9 years
0.028 (0.0007)0.013 (0.0007)0.036 (0.0009)0.018 (0.0009)0.040 (0.0013)0.020 (0.0013)
 Secondary education
 ≤2 years
0.035 (0.0006)0.019 (0.0007)0.045 (0.0008)0.026 (0.0008)0.045 (0.0011)0.025 (0.0012)
 Secondary education
 3 years
0.041 (0.0006)0.021 (0.0007)0.053 (0.0008)0.028 (0.0009)0.054 (0.0012)0.027 (0.0013)
 Higher education
 <3 years
0.047 (0.0007)0.026 (0.0007)0.059 (0.0008)0.034 (0.0009)0.059 (0.0013)0.032 (0.0014)
 Higher education
 ≥3 years
0.049 (0.0007)0.024 (0.0007)0.061 (0.0008)0.031 (0.0009)0.057 (0.0012)0.024 (0.0013)
 Doctoral studies0.039 (0.0018)0.010 (0.0018)0.049 (0.0019)0.014 (0.0020)0.040 (0.0029)0.001 (0.0030)
Country of birth
 Eastern Europe−0.042 (0.0011)−0.041 (0.0012)−0.046 (0.0013)−0.044 (0.0013)−0.018 (0.0020)−0.018 (0.0020)
 North America or Oceania0.013 (0.0025)0.004 (0.0027)0.014 (0.0029)0.005 (0.0030)0.016 (0.0046)0.004 (0.0048)
 Africa−0.056 (0.0016)−0.054 (0.0015)−0.064 (0.0018)−0.060 (0.0017)−0.019 (0.0029)−0.017 (0.0028)
 Asia−0.035 (0.0008)−0.034 (0.0009)−0.039 (0.0009)−0.036 (0.0010)−0.022 (0.0014)−0.020 (0.0015)
 EU28−0.007 (0.0010)−0.007 (0.0010)−0.009 (0.0011)−0.008 (0.0012)0.003 (0.0017)0.003 (0.0018)
 Nordic countries−0.003 (0.0009)−0.001 (0.0010)−0.003 (0.0012)−0.001 (0.0012)−0.002 (0.0018)0.000 (0.0019)
 South America−0.019 (0.0020)−0.021 (0.0020)−0.021 (0.0022)−0.023 (0.0022)−0.027 (0.0038)−0.029 (0.0038)
Employment0.024 (0.0003)0.000 (0.0004)0.028 (0.0004)0.000 (0.0005)0.031 (0.0005)0.001 (0.0007)
Early retirement−0.019 (0.0007)−0.001 (0.0007)−0.024 (0.0009)−0.012 (0.0009)−0.027 (0.0013)−0.017 (0.0014)
Labour market programme−0.020 (0.0008)−0.006 (0.0008)−0.023 (0.0010)−0.007 (0.0010)−0.015 (0.0015)−0.006 (0.0015)
Age >75 years−0.018 (0.0005)−0.010 (0.0006)−0.022 (0.0006)−0.013 (0.0007)−0.035 (0.0010)−0.022 (0.0012)
  • The table reports crude models that only control for fixed effect municipality models. In the full models, all variables are included in the regression models.

  • In the first sample, we have excluded all individuals living in municipalities with <1 public PHCC or <1 private PHCC. In the second sample, we have excluded all individuals living in municipalities with <0.4 private PHCCs per capita or <0.4 public PHCCs per capita.

  • B-coefficients are reported in the table. The numbers within parenthesis represent robust SEs that take into account clustering at household level and heteroscedasticity.

  • Coefficients for municipalities are omitted from the table. Ale municipality is used as comparison group.

  • For the variable income per adult in household, the comparison group is individuals with an income in the first quantile. For education, the comparison group is people with an education shorter than 9 years. For country of birth, the comparison group is people born in Sweden.

  • All coefficients except for employment and the dummy variables for country of birth in North America or Oceania and Nordic countries have a p value of <0.001.

  • To check for multicollinearity we calculated VIF scores for all coefficients in the full models. Variance inflation factor (VIF) ranged from 1.0 to 3.31.