Table 2

Eligibility criteria for patients

Inclusion criteriaPatients aged ≥65 years with acute intracapsular/extracapsular hip fracture (eg, femoral neck fracture, subtrochanteric or intertrochanteric fracture) requiring surgical intervention.
Planned surgical treatment via hemiarthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty or appropriate osteosynthetic procedure.
Written informed consent prior to study participation.
Exclusion criteriaPatients who are institutionalised by court or administrate order.
Patients with planned concurrent surgery, which is not amenable to spinal anaesthesia.
Patients with absolute and relative contraindications to spinal anaesthesia, including but not limited to: known or suspected congenital or acquired coagulopathy; active use of pharmacological anticoagulants within time frame, defined to contraindicate neuraxial block placement, as defined by the recommendations of the German Society of Anaesthesiology38; known or suspected unrepaired critical or severe aortic stenosis; known or suspected active skin infection at the planned needle insertion site; and known or suspected elevated intracranial pressure contraindicating dural puncture.
Periprosthetic fracture.
Prior participation in the iHOPE study.
Determination by the attending surgeon, the attending anaesthesiologist, the site principal investigator or his designate, that the patient or the attending team in the operating room would not be suitable for a randomisation procedure (eg, patients will be excluded, if one treatment has preferably to be used in this patient according to the clinical situation).