Table 4

Uncertainties for the optimal application of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in ulcerative colitis (UC)

Human gut microbiota
  • Responsible pathogens and their roles.

  • Microbiome profiling techniques.

FMT preparations
  • Frozen versus fresh.

  • Donor screening protocol.

  • Preparation methodology.

  • Related versus unrelated.

  • Single donor versus multiple donors.

  • Bowel preparation.

  • Antibiotics versus non-antibiotics.

FMT in clinical application
  • Dose.

  • Administration routes.

  • FMT alone versus with other traditional medications.

  • Durability of engraftment.

  • Who to treat—active, remission, refractory.

  • Adverse effects.

  • Long-term effects and safety.

  • Long-term effects after transplant.

Clinical remission
  • How to assess clinical response.

  • How to define clinical remission.

  • When to stop FMT treatment.

  • Maintenance dose required for remission.

  • Postremission dietary modification.