Table 5

Generalised estimating equation of panel data

Model 1
(crude)
Model 2
(adjusted by CAPB)
Model 3 interactions
(time period*CAPB)
Coef.P valuesCoef.P valuesCoef.P values
Child poverty
Time period
  2008–20100.51NS0.51NS0.75NS
  2012–20151.290.011.29<0.0010.69NS
CAPB3.60 <0.0013.46 <0.001
Interaction terms
  CAPB*2008–2010−0.27NS
  CAPB*2012–20150.690.06
 Constant14.6 <0.00111.44 <0.00111.57 <0.001
Material deprivation
Independent variables
Time period
  2008–20100.86NS0.86NS0.01NS
  2012–20155.86 <0.0015.86 <0.0010.92NS
CAPB2.37NS0.17NS
Interaction terms
  CAPB*2008–20100.96NS
  CAPB*2012–20155.62 <0.001
 Constant15.23 <0.00113.15 <0.00115.08 <0.001
Preschool investment
Independent variables
Time period
  2008–20100.1 <0.0010.1 <0.0010.10.006
  2012–20130.18 <0.0010.18 <0.0010.18 <0.001
CAPB−0.19NS−0.19NS
Interaction terms
  CAPB*2008–20100.008NS
  CAPB*2012–2013−0.01NS
 Constant0.72 <0.0010.85 <0.0010.85 <0.001
  • SDCH (child poverty 2005–2015, material deprivation 2005–2015, and pre-school investment 2005–2013).

  • Reference category: years 2005–2007.

  • CAPB, cyclically adjusted primary balance; SDCH, social determinants of child health.