Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Study name*LocationAge range, (year)Baseline yearFollow-up, (years)NOS score (points)N (%) womenN (%) lung cancer in womenFatal/non-fatalCurrent smoker, %
Former smoker, %
Maximum available adjustment
APCSC—ANZ31 (8 cohorts)ANZ20–1071961–199310687 130 (52)501 (28)F7111118Age, education, BMI
APCSC—Asia31 (33 cohorts)Asia20–1041989–199676476 755 (35)1275 (19)F259<17Age, education, BMI
ARIC32 (1 cohort)USA45–641987–198920814 610 (54)470 (37)F/NF25442228Age, race
China Kadoorie Biobank33 34 (1 cohort)China35–742004–200877512 891 (59)1953 (37)F361115Age, area, education, alcohol
China National Hypertension Survey35 (1 cohort)China15+199187155 131 (51)NRF1463NRNRAge, education, region, HT, overweight/obesity, alcohol, PA, DM
Copenhagen Cohort Studies36 (3 cohorts)Denmark20+1964–199214630 874 (44)867 (23)F/NFNRNRNRNRAge
CPS I (1 cohort)USA55+195965518 982 (65)1293 (21)F1540417Age, education, race
CPS II37 (1 cohort)USA55+198265746 485 (61)4957 (36)F18242143Age, education, race
EHS38 39 (1 cohort)China65+1998–200011765 510 (66)1096 (27)F410820Age, education, alcohol, depression, health status, social security assistance, housing type, expenditure
EPIC40 (23 cohorts)Europe30–701992–2000118441 211 (70)2995 (49)F/NF21272538Age, education, BMI, alcohol,
PA, energy intake, diet
JPHC,41 JACC, TPCS37 42 43 (3 cohorts)Japan40–791983–1994106296 836 (53)NRF854225Age
Korean Cancer Prevention Study44 (1 cohort)Korea30–951993–1995961 212 906 (32)4238 (14)F557323Age
Korean National Health Insurance Service8 (1 cohort)Korea20+1998–19991071 355 891 (31)6491 (15)F/NF156113Age, BMI, alcohol, PA
Malmo Preventive Project45 (1 cohort)Sweden27–611974–199224533 346 (33)436 (21)F36491927Age, FEV, SES, marital status
Migrant Study46 (1 cohort)Norway33–721964–196521726 126 (55)435 (23)F2646828Age
New Zealand Census 198147 (1 cohort)New Zealand25+198157NR4188 (28)F/NFNRNRNRNRAge, race
New Zealand Census 199647 (1 cohort)New Zealand25+199657NR4467 (44)F/NFNRNRNRNRAge, race
NHANES III (1 cohort)USA18–901988–199413720 006 (53)320 (36)F21301732Age, education, BMI
NHIS48 (1 cohort)USA25+1997–200477202 248 (56)1223 (44)F21262029Age, education, BMI, alcohol
NIH-AARP7 49 (1 cohort)USA50–711995–1996117452 131 (41)9381 (37)F/NF17133961Age, education, alcohol, ethnicity
Norwegian Counties Study50–52 (1 cohort)Norway20–491974–197823648 682 (48)686 (35)F43501118Age, SBP, TC, TG, PA, BMI, height, sickness leave, disability pension, family history of CHD
Renfrew/Paisley Study53 (1 cohort)Scotland45–641972–197620615 393 (54)NRF4759725Age
Reykjavik Study54 (1 cohort)Iceland32–60196727722 946 (50)472 (42)F/NF39301524Age
Shanghai Health Study55 (2 cohorts)China40–741997–20061071 34 335 (54)839 (49)F370NRNRAge, education, BMI, alcohol, PA, income
SHHEC (1 cohort)Scotland25–751984–198723617 731 (51)558 (38)F40512127Age, education, BMI
Singapore Chinese Health Study56 (1 cohort)Singapore45–741993–199812861 320 (55)905 (31)F/NF636321Age, dialect, year of recruitment, education, alcohol, PA
Swedish Smoking Habit Survey57 58 (1 cohort)Sweden18–69196333841 544 (60)442 (45)F1827523Age, area
Swiss National Cohort59 (4 cohorts)Switzerland14–991977–199319535 703 (53)426 (29)F27431324Age, survey, education, alcohol, PA, civil status, nationality, diet
Wen et al 60 (2 cohorts)Taiwan35+1982–199220586 580 (39)247 (2)F141<111Age
  • *Note that where several studies are cited for a single cohort, data may be extracted from multiple studies if all data required is not available in the most up-to-date and relevant study.

  • ANZ, Australia and New Zealand; ARIC, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study; APCSC, Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration; BMI, body mass index; CHD, coronary heart disease; CPS, Cancer Prevention Study; DM, diabetes mellitus; EHS, Elderly Health Services; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer; F, fatal; FEV, forced expiratory volume; JACC, Japan Collaborative Cohort Study; JPHC, Japan Public Health CentreStudy; NF, non-fatal; NHANES III, National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey III; NHIS, National Health Interview Survey; NIH-AARP, National Institutes of Health American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study; NOS, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale; NR, not reported; PA, physical activity; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SES, socioeconomic status; SHHEC, Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort Study; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; TPCS, Three-Prefecture Cohort Study.