Table 1

Baseline patient characteristics

CharacteristicsTotalMild TBIModerate TBISevere TBISignificance
Patients (n)154 (100%)69 (44.8%)24 (15.6%)61 (39.6%)
Age (years)42.7±14.648.8±12.041.7±12.736.2±15.3 <0.0001
Sex
 Men90 (58.4%)31 (44.9%)13 (54.2%)46 (75.4%) =0.002
 Women64 (41.6%)38 (55.1%)11 (45.8%)15 (24.6%)
Education (years)14.8±3.314.9±3.614.9±3.314.6±3.1=0.895
Traumatic event
 Motor vehicle accident116 (75.3%)56 (81.2%)17 (70.8%)43 (70.5%) =0.048
 Fall21 (13.6%)8 (11.6%)1 (4.2%)12 (57.1%)
 Blow12 (7.8%)5 (7.2%)5 (20.8%)2 (3.3%)
 Blast4 (2.6%)01 (4.2%)3 (4.9%)
 Penetrating1 (0.6%)001 (0.6%)
Time from trauma (years)4.6±5.84.4±5.95.0±5.84.6±5.7=0.923
Symptoms
 Cognitive100 (86.2%)38 (74.5%)19 (90.5%)43 (97.7%) =0.004
 Motor22 (19.0%)1 (4.8%)1 (4.8%)20 (45.5%) <0.0001
 Sensory32 (27.6%)12 (23.5%)7 (33.3%)13 (29.5%)=0.653
 Dizziness/vertigo17 (14.7%)14 (27.5%)2 (9.5%)1 (2.3%) =0.002
 Tinnitus30 (25.9%)26 (51.0%)2 (9.5%)2 (4.5%) <0.0001
 Headaches20 (17.2%)12 (23.5%)3 (14.3%)5 (11.4%)=0.272
HBO sessions52.0±9.949.4±10.149.0±10.356.1±8.2 =0.0001
HBO protocol (ATA)
 1.5106 (69.3%)46 (67.6%)18 (75.0%)42 (68.9%)=0.795
 247 (30.7%)22 (32.4%)6 (25.0%)19 (31.1%)
Adverse events18 (12.0%)10 (15.2%)3 (12.5%)5 (8.3%)=0.499
  • HBO, hyperbaric oxygen; TBI, traumatic brain injury. 

  • Statisical significance (p<0.05) marked in bold.