Table 1

Characteristics of the study population

Participant characteristicsAll (n=30)
Age, years (mean (SD))67 (10)
Gender
 Female, N (%)17 (57)
Race
 White, N (%)7 (23)
 Black, N (%)15 (50)
 Hispanic, N (%)6 (20)
 Asian/Pacific islander, N (%)2 (7)
Educational degree
 No degree, N (%)3 (10)
 Some High School (HS), N (%)6 (20)
 General Education Diploma (GED) or HS completed, N (%)6 (20)
 Some college, N (%)8 (27)
 Four-year college degree, N (%)3 (10)
 Graduate degree, N (%)4 (13)
Insurance type
 None, N (%)5 (21)
 Private, N (%)7 (29)
 Medicare, N (%)5 (21)
 Medicaid, N (%)6 (25)
 Medicare and Medicaid, N (%)1 (6)
NYHA class, N (%)
 18 (27)
 211 (37)
 311 (37)
No of years with HF diagnosis, years (mean (SD))10.9 (7.8)
No of medications taking for HF
 Do not know, N (%)2 (7)
 1–5, N (%)25 (83%)
 6–10, N (%)3 (10)
 >10, N (%)0
No of medications taking overall
 Do not know, N (%)0
 1–5, N (%)3 (10)
 6–10, N (%)19 (63)
 >10, N (%)8 (27)
Depressed symptoms
 CES-D-10, mean (SD)12.3 (5.3)
Subjective numeracy
 SNS-8, mean (SD)27 (10.3)
  • The 10-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) was used to measure of depressive symptoms, with higher scores indicating more depressive symptoms. The Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS-8) assessed patients’ numeracy. The SNS-8 is a validated 8-item instrument which measures numeracy on a scale of 6–48 with higher scores indicating higher numeracy skills.

  • HF, heart failure; NYHA, New York Heart Association.