Table 1

Descriptive statistics state-level observations, 2004–2013

NMeanSDMinMax
Infant mortality rate5006.51.33.811.4
Neonatal mortality rate4974.30.91.96.7
Postneonatal mortality rate4972.30.71.04.7
Proportion of black residents50010.69.50.437.4
Proportion of Hispanic residents50010.29.80.947.3
Poverty rate50013.03.45.425.8
Gini coefficient5000.60.00.50.7
Gross domestic product (per capita)50050 636980033 28186 195
State and local direct expenditures (per capita)5004897355693418 104
Average freshman graduation rate50077.77.651.393.3
Federal transfers received (per capita)50020336599194932