Table 2

HR of hearing impairment according to baseline HbA1c (n=202 975)

HbA1c (%) (mg/dL)P for quadratic
<5.0 (<91)5.0–5.4 (91–110)5.5–5.9 (111–125)6.0-.6.4 (126–139)6.5–6.9 (140–153)7.0–7.9 (154–182)≥8 (≥183)
Low frequency
 Men
  Person-year54 055275 953261 29044 80711 79810 63711 613
  No cases84447548122452639
  Model 11.15 (0.91 to 1.45)1.000.98 (0.86 to 1.11)0.94 (0.77 to 1.15)1.11 (0.81 to 1.51)0.73 (0.49 to 1.08)1.22 (0.88 to 1.70)0.15
  Model 21.11 (0.88 to 1.40)1.001.00 (0.88 to 1.14)0.98 (0.79 to 1.20)1.16 (0.84 to 1.60)0.75 (0.49 to 1.15)1.26 (0.88 to 1.80)0.27
 Women
  Person-year28 447137 761143 29525 083413627602576
  No cases6541555313318149
  Model 11.04 (0.80 to 1.35)1.000.90 (0.79 to 1.03)0.94 (0.77 to 1.14)0.71 (0.44 to 1.14)0.86 (0.51 to 1.48)0.68 (0.35 to 1.31)0.79
  Model 21.04 (0.80 to 1.35)1.000.91 (0.80 to 1.03)0.93 (0.76 to 1.14)0.67 (0.41 to 1.10)0.77 (0.43 to 1.38)0.57 (0.28 to 1.19)0.51
High frequency
 Men
  Person-year53 617273 025257 81244 09311 62110 34511 424
  No cases28016101941416116128130
  Model 11.05 (0.92 to 1.19)1.000.98 (0.91 to 1.04)0.91 (0.82 to 1.02)0.82 (0.67 to 0.99)1.05 (0.88 to 1.26)1.15 (0.96 to 1.38)0.003
  Model 21.03 (0.90 to 1.17)1.000.99 (0.92 to 1.06)0.93 (0.83 to 1.03)0.84 (0.69 to 1.02)1.08 (0.89 to 1.32)1.18 (0.97 to 1.43)0.007
 Women
  Person-year28 520138 232143 88225 246412427532555
  No cases2316927767181315
  Model 11.02 (0.66 to 1.58)1.001.00 (0.83 to 1.22)0.97 (0.73 to 1.29)1.43 (0.88 to 2.34)1.62 (0.92 to 2.86)2.41 (1.42 to 4.10)0.03
  Model 21.03 (0.66 to 1.60)1.000.97 (0.80 to 1.17)0.86 (0.64 to 1.16)1.17 (0.70 to 1.95)1.24 (0.67 to 2.29)1.78 (0.95 to 3.34)0.08
  • Model 1: Adjusted for age.

  • Model 2: Adjusted for age, walking time, smoking status, alcohol consumption, self-reported diabetes, BMI, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia.

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c.