Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants according to HbA1c (n=202 975)

HbA1c (%) (mg/dL)
Overall<5.0 (<91)5.0–5.4 (91–110)5.5–5.9 (111–125)6.0-6.4 (126–139)6.5–6.9 (140–153)7.0–7.9 (154–182)≥8 (≥183)
Men
 n131 68910 70153 83950 9578995248822242485
 Age (years)*44.6 (9.1)40.9 (8.2)42.6 (8.6)45.7 (9.0)49.6 (8.6)51.7 (7.9)51.6 (7.8)49.2 (8.2)
 Walking time, ≥60 min/day (%)1616171715151613
 Smoking status (%)
  Non-smoker45.1544444647504640
  Daily consuming ≤20 cigarettes/day37.0439393634313235
  Daily consuming >20 cigarettes/day17.817171819192225
  Alcohol consumption (%)
  Non-drinker2619242931303336
  Drinker <1 go/day†3532353634343032
  Drinker 1 to <2 go/day†2630272525252622
  Drinker ≥2 go/day†1219131010111110
 Self-reported diabetes (%)‡2.30.070.100.44.622.441.137.3
 BMI (kg/m2)*23.8 (3.5)22.6 (2.9)23.2 (3.1)24.0 (3.5)25.4 (4.0)26.0 (4.2)26.3 (4.3)26.4 (4.5)
 Hypertension (%)§2821222944575753
 Dyslipidaemia (%)¶3929334154596065
Women
 n71 286588028 27729 7415286890618594
 Age (years)*47.1 (9.0)41.5 (7.6)44.6 (8.6)49.0 (8.6)52.6 (7.6)53.9 (7.2)53.9 (7.2)52.0 (7.6)
 Walking time, ≥60 min/day (%)1211111213121311
 Smoking status (%)
  Non-smoker8071778386868377
  Daily consuming ≤20 cigarettes/day1926211613131622
  Daily consuming >20 cigarettes/day1.42.51.51.21.21.11.51.9
 Alcohol consumption (%)
  Non-drinker6045566570747378
  Drinker <1 go/day†3136342926222219
  Drinker 1 to <2 go/day†6.814.47.85.03.83.93.72.7
  Drinker ≥2 go/day†1.75.31.91.00.50.60.50.7
 Self-reported diabetes (%)‡1.20.050.030.12.517.438.247.5
 BMI (kg/m2)*22.3 (3.6)21.2 (2.9)21.6 (3.2)22.5 (3.7)23.9 (4.3)25.5 (4.7)26.4 (4.8)26.6 (4.6)
 Hypertension (%)§1911142134525953
 Dyslipidaemia (%)¶2213162439546159
  • Longitudinal survey of 202 950 examinees in All Japan Labor Welfare Foundation, Japan, 2008.

  • *Mean (SD).

  • †1 go contains ~23 g of ethanol.

  • ‡Self-reported diagnosis of diabetes or receiving medication.

  • §Systolic blood pressure≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure≥90 mm Hg or receiving medication.

  • ¶Triglyceride level ≥150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol /L), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level <40 mg/dL (1.04 mmol /L) in men and <50mg/dL (1.3 mml/L) in women or receiving medication.

  • HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c.