Table 1

Comparison of baseline characteristics between included and excluded (refused to participate or were lost to the 14-day follow-up) patients

Baseline characteristicsIncluded (n=627)Excluded (n=310)
Mean age (±SD)51.0 (15.9)50.0 (17.8)
Female (%)47.849
ED arrival mode (%)
 By himself78.679.9
 By ambulance21.320.1
High (level 1 or 2) triage priority (%)42.645.3
Mean pain intensity (0–10 scale) at triage (±SD)7.8 (2.0)8.0 (1.7)
ED treatment section (%)
 Ambulatory64.664.1
 On stretcher35.435.9
Type of pain conditions (%)
 Musculoskeletal pain4440.3
 Fracture19.119.7
 Renal colic1717.7
 Abdominal pain65.2
 Other13.917.1
Received a Tylenol prescription at ED discharged (%)71.670.3
Received an NSAIDs prescription at ED discharged (%)45.847.4
Opioid prescription type (%)
 Morphine43.642.7
 Oxycodone40.536.9
 Hydromorphone15.920.4
Median (IQR) morphine 5 mg equivalent tablets prescription30 (28)30 (25)
Median (IQR) ED stay (hours)5.3 (3.6–7.7)5.2 (3.7–7.9)
Mean (±SD) pain intensity (0–10 scale) at ED discharge4.8 (2.9)4.7 (2.9)
  • ED, emergency department; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.