Table 1

Baseline characteristics and clinical data on arrival at the emergency department of the enrolled participants by blood eosinophil level

Blood eosinophil percentageBlood absolute eosinophil countTotal
(n=262)
High (>2%)
(n=32)
Low (≤2%)
(n=230)
P valuesHigh (>300 cells/µL)
(n=169)
Low (≤300 cells/µL)
(n=93)
P values
Age (years)82.9±5.478.1±9.10.000*79.2±8.477.6±9.60.24678.7±8.9
Male gender31 (96.9%)210 (91.3%)0.486158 (93.5%)83 (89.2%)0.331241 (92.0%)
Smoking history0.6770.958
 Never4 (12.5%)42 (18.3%)30 (17.8%)16 (17.2%)46 (17.6%)
 Ex-smoker19 (59.4%)121 (52.6%)91 (53.8%)49 (52.7%)140 (53.4%)
 Current smoker9 (28.1%)67 (29.1%)48 (28.4%)28 (30.1%)76 (29.0%)
Spirometry (postbronchodilator test)
 FEV1/FVC (%)56.0±8.051.3±11.60.005*53.1±11.249.5±11.20.013*51.8±11.3
 FEV1 (L)1.1±0.41.0±0.50.1981.1±0.41.0±0.50.1231.1±0.5
Positive bronchodilator test5 (15.6%)29 (12.6%)0.58123 (13.6%)11 (11.8%)0.82734 (13.0%)
COPD severity (GOLD spirometric classification)0.008*0.001*
 I6 (18.8%)37 (16.1%)29 (17.2%)14 (15.1%)43 (16.4%)
 II20 (62.5%)79 (34.3%)77 (45.6%)22 (23.7%)99 (37.8%)
 III5 (15.6%)86 (37.4%)47 (27.8%)44 (47.3%)91 (34.7%)
 IV1 (3.1%)28 (12.2%)16 (9.5%)13 (14.0%)29 (11.1%)
COPD pharmacological maintenance medications0.6610.189
 ICS/LABA5 (15.6%)36 (15.7%)26 (15.4%)15 (16.1%)41 (15.6%)
 ICS/LABA+LAMA6 (18.8%)41 (17.8%)24 (14.2%)23 (24.7%)47 (17.9%)
 LAMA alone3 (9.4%)18 (7.8%)13 (7.7%)8 (8.6%)21 (8.0%)
 LABA alone0 (0.0%)3 (1.3%)3 (1.8%)0 (0.0%)3 (1.1%)
 LABA+LAMA1 (3.1%)1 (0.4%)2 (1.2%)0 (0.0%)2 (0.8%)
 None17 (53.1%)131 (57.0%)101 (59.8%)47 (50.5%)148 (56.5%)
Prior antibiotic use within 3 months14 (43.8%)66 (28.7%)0.12752 (30.8%)28 (30.1%)1.00080 (30.5%)
Prior admission within 3 months12 (37.5%)50 (21.7%)0.08139 (23.1%)23 (24.7%)0.88162 (23.7%)
 Comorbidities0.4880.411
 Cardiovascular disease†24 (75.0%)127 (55.2%)103 (60.9%)48 (51.6%)151 (57.6%)
 Cerebrovascular accident7 (21.9%)42 (18.3%)36 (21.2%)13 (14.0%)49 (18.7%)
 Diabetes mellitus7 (21.9%)39 (17.0%)31 (18.3%)15 (16.1%)46 (17.6%)
 Hypertension10 (31.3%)101 (43.9%)64 (37.9%)47 (50.5%)111 (42.4%)
 Malignancy (except for lung cancer)5 (15.6%)47 (20.4%)36 (21.3%)16 (17.2%)52 (19.8%)
Modified GCS8.8±2.98.5±2.90.5588.5±2.88.5±3.20.9998.5±2.9
Pneumonia Severity Index0.7770.674
 I0 (0.0%)1 (0.4%)1 (0.6%)0 (0.0%)1 (0.4%)
 II0 (0.0%)7 (3.0%)6 (3.6%)1 (1.1%)7 (2.7%)
 III6 (18.8%)34 (14.8%)27 (16.0%)13 (14.0%)40 (15.3%)
 IV14 (43.8%)113 (49.1%)81 (47.9%)46 (49.5%)127 (48.5%)
 V12 (37.5%)75 (32.6%)54 (32.0%)33 (35.5%)87 (33.2%)
CURB-65 scores0.3770.629
 0–112 (37.5%)76 (33.0%)60 (35.5%)28 (30.1%)88 (33.6%)
 217 (53.1%)109 (47.4%)80 (47.3%)46 (49.5%)126 (48.1%)
 3–53 (9.4%)45 (19.6%)29 (17.2%)19 (20.4%)48 (18.3%)
Chest X-ray findings0.1160.802
 Unilateral24 (75.0%)198 (86.1%)142 (84.0%)80 (86.0%)222 (84.7%)
 Bilateral8 (25.0%)32 (13.9%)27 (16.0%)13 (14.0%)40 (15.3%)
Laboratory findings
 WCC 109/L8.8±3.211.1±4.90.009*10.3±4.411.8±5.30.017*10.8±4.8
Haemoglobin (g/dL)11.6±2.111.9±2.30.48511.9±2.411.7±2.10.47711.9±2.3
High-sensitive CRP (mg/dL)0.2120.836
 Available no32 (100%)223 (97.0%)165 (97.6%)90 (96.8%)255 (97.3%)
 Mean±SD6.4±7.78.4±8.68.1±8.58.3±8.68.2±8.5
Albumin (g/dL)
 Available no
 Mean±SD
27 (84.4%)
3.2±0.6
209 (90.9%)
3.0±0.7
0.343157 (92.9%)
3.1±0.6
79 (84.9%)
3.0±0.7
0.665236 (90.1%)
3.0±0.7
BUN (mg/dL)
 Available no
 Mean±SD
32 (100%)
25.3±14.6
228 (99.1%)
28.9±16.6
0.242169 (100%)
27.5±15.0
91 (97.8%)
30.4±18.7
0.154260 (99.2%)
28.4±16.4
Creatinine (mg/dL)1.5±1.31.4±1.30.6601.4±0.91.6±1.90.2251.4±1.3
pH7.4±0.17.4±0.10.8877.4±0.17.4±0.10.8367.4±0.1
PaCO2 (mm Hg)38.4±7.741.2±10.40.14540.2±9.342.1±11.30.13940.8±10.1
PaO2/FiO2 ratio0.4600.515
 Available no32 (100%)211 (91.7%)159 (94.1%)84 (90.3%)243 (92.7%)
 Mean±SD233.5±141.3214.0±107.8220.0±116.2210.1±105.9216.6±112.6
Lactate (mg/dL)0.4620.340
 Available no23 (71.9%)188 (81.7%)126 (74.6%)85 (91.4%)211 (80.5%)
 Mean±SD17.7±10.119.9±13.918.9±11.120.8±16.519.7±13.5
APACHE II score21.5±5.321.5±6.10.95721.3±5.721.7±6.50.59621.5±6.0
Medications
 Systemic corticosteroids0.1451.000
 Available no32 (100%)227 (98.7%)167 (98.8%)92 (98.9%)259 (98.9%)
 Use26 (81.3%)204 (89.9%)148 (88.6%)82 (89.1%)230 (88.8%)
 Use of antibiotics32 (100%)230 (100%)NA169 (100%)93 (100%)NA262 (100%)
Use of antibiotics while microbiological sampling12 (37.5%)104 (45.2%)0.52674 (43.8%)42 (45.2%)0.933116 (44.3%)
Ventilator settings
 Volume control mode32 (100%)230 (100%)NA169 (100%)93 (100%)NA262 (100%)
 Tidal volume (mL/kg)0.2680.367
 Available no23 (71.9%)182 (79.1%)123 (72.8%)82 (88.2%)205 (78.2%)
 Mean±SD8.6±1.79.1±2.29.0±1.99.3±2.69.1±2.2
Respiratory rate (breaths per minute)14.1±0.514.3±1.00.06114.1±0.614.7±1.20.05314.3±0.9
Use of NIPPV after successful liberation from IMV support during the RICU stay10 (31.3%)37 (16.1%)0.33932 (18.9%)15 (26.9%)0.62347 (17.9%)
  • *P<0.05.

  • †Cardiovascular disease included ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

  • APACHE II score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRP, C reactive protein; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FiO2, fractional inspired oxygen; FVC, forced vital capacity; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; IMV, invasive mechanical ventilation; LABA, long-acting β2-agonist; LAMA, long-acting muscarinic antagonist; NA, not applicable; NIPPV, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation; PaCO2, alveolar carbon dioxide tension; PaO2, arterial oxygen tension; RICU, respiratory intensive care unit; WCC, white cell count.