Table 1

Associations between sociodemographic factors and preference for mode of death

Active pain vontrolWithdrawal of futile LSTPassive euthanasiaActive euthanasiaPhysician-assisted suicide
PositiveNegativeP valuesPositiveNegativeP valuesPositiveNegativeP valuesPositiveNegativeP valuesPositiveNegativeP values
Sex
 Male1840 (90.5)193 (9.5)N.S.1853 (91.2)180 (8.8)N.S.1375 (67.6)658 (32.4)0.001769 (37.8)1265 (62.2)N.S.636 (31.3)1398 (68.7)N.S.
 Female1923 (89.8)219 (10.2)1946 (90.9)196 (9.2)1323 (61.8)819 (38.2)775 (36.2)1367 (63.8)618 (28.9)1524 (71.1)
Age (years)
 <502046 (90.3)220 (9.7)N.S.2080 (91.8)186 (8.2)N.S.1512 (66.7)755 (33.3)N.S.846 (37.3)1421 (62.7)N.S.706 (31.2)1560 (68.8)N.S.
 ≥501718 (90.0)192 (10.0)1720 (90.1)190 (9.9)1187 (62.2)723 (37.8)699 (36.6)1211 (63.4)549 (28.7)1361 (71.3)
Education
 Middle school or less389 (84.8)70 (15.2)0.001393 (85.6)66 (14.4)N.S.242 (52.7)217 (47.3)0.002132 (28.8)327 (71.2)<0.001116 (25.3)343 (74.7)0.018
 High school or higher3280 (91.0)324 (9.0)3305 (91.7)299 (8.3)2389 (66.3)1215 (33.7)1368 (38.0)2236 (62.0)1100 (30.5)2504 (69.5)
Religion
 No1818 (89.1)223 (10.9)0.0341846 (90.4)195 (9.6)N.S.1309 (64.2)732 (35.8)N.S.784 (38.4)1257 (61.6)N.S.655 (32.1)1386 (67.9)0.003
 Yes1945 (91.2)189 (8.8)1953 (91.5)181 (8.5)1388 (65.1)746 (34.9)759 (35.6)1374 (64.4)599 (28.1)1535 (71.9)
Monthly income
 <3000$943 (88.0)129 (12.0)N.S.927 (86.5)145 (13.5)<0.001604 (56.3)468 (43.7)<0.001358 (33.4)714 (66.6)N.S.293 (27.3)779 (72.7)N.S.
 ≥3000$2787 (90.9)280 (9.1)2841 (92.6)226 (7.4)2076 (67.7)991 (32.3)1174 (38.3)1893 (61.7)950.6 (31.0)2116 (69.0)
Health insurance
 National Health Insurance3615 (90.0)400 (10.0)N.S.3652 (91.0)363 (9.0)N.S.2611 (65.0)1404 (35.0)N.S.1488 (37.0)2527 (63.0)N.S.1204 (30.0)2811 (70.0)N.S.
 Medicaid94 (90.4)10 (9.6)93 (89.4)11 (10.6)61 (58.7)43 (41.3)43 (41.4)61 (58.6)39 (37.5)65 (62.5)
Comorbidity
 No2704 (90.6)280 (9.4)N.S.2748 (92.1)236 (7.9)N.S.1971 (66.1)1012 (33.9)N.S.1091 (36.6)1892 (63.4)N.S.906 (30.4)2078 (69.6)N.S.
 Yes1060 (88.9)132 (11.1)1052 (88.3)140 (11.8)727 (61.0)465 (39.0)453 (38.0)739 (62.0)349 (29.2)844 (70.8)
Caregiver experience
 No1853 (87.7)260 (12.3)<0.0011894 (89.7)219 (10.3)0.0071384 (65.5)729 (34.5)N.S.820 (38.8)1294 (61.2)0.010662 (31.3)1451 (68.7)N.S.
 Yes1911 (92.7)152 (7.4)1906 (92.4)157 (7.6)1315 (63.7)748 (36.3)725 (35.2)1338 (64.9)592 (28.7)1471 (71.3)
  • P values were estimated from models using stepwise selection.

  • LST, life-sustaining treatment; N.S., non-significant.