Table 1

Main randomised controlled trials having assessed the use of prophylactic NIV to prevent postextubation respiratory failure in ICU

Randomised controlled trials
No of centres/inclusion criteria
Main results: NIV versus standard oxygen (O2)
Nava et al 3
3 centres: NIV (n=48) vs O2 (n=49)
Patients considered at high risk for reintubation
Reintubation: n=4 (8%) vs n=12 (24%), p=0.027*
In-ICU mortality: n=3 (6%) vs n=9 (18%), p=0.064
Ferrer et al 5
2 centres: NIV (n=79) vs O2 (n=83)
Age>65, APACHE II>12 or intubation for cardiac heart failure
Respiratory failure after extubation: n=13 (16%) vs n=27 (33%), p=0.029*
Reintubation: n=9 (11%) vs n=18 (22%), p=0.12
Nosocomial Infections: 18 (23%) vs 27 (33%), p=NS
In-ICU mortality: NIV n=2 (3%) vs. n=12 (14%), p=0.015
Ferrer et al 6
3 centres: NIV (n=54) vs O2 (n=52)
PCO2 >45 mm Hg at the end of the spontaneous breathing trial
Respiratory failure after extubation: n=8 (15%) vs n=25 (48%), p<0.0001*
Reintubation: n=6 (11%) vs n=10 (19%), p=0.37
Pneumonias: 3 (6%) vs 9 (17%), p=0.12
In-ICU mortality: n=3 (6%) vs n=4 (8%), p=0.71
Mortality at day 90: n=6 (11%) vs n=16 (31%), p=0.024
Khilnani et al 26
1 single centre: NIV (n=20) vs O2 (n=20)
Patients with COPD
Reintubation: n=5 (25%) vs n=3 (15%), p=0.44*
Length of ICU stay: 18.3±7.9 j vs 16.1±6.3, p=0.34
Su et al 27
3 centres: NIV (n=202) vs O2 (n=204)
Intubation≥48 hours
Extubation failure: n=30 (15%) vs n=27 (13%), p=0.62*
Reintubation: n=21 (10%) vs n=16 (8%), p=0.37
In-ICU mortality: n=3 (1.5%) vs n=2 (1%), p=0.64
Ornico et al 4
1 single centre: NIV (n=20) vs O2 (n=18)
Intubation ≥3 days for respiratory failure
Reintubation: n=1 (5%) vs n=7 (39%), p=0.016*
In-hospital mortality: 0% vs n=4 (22%), p=0.041
Vargas et al 28
6 centres: NIV (n=71) vs O2 (n=72)
Patients with chronic lung disorders
Respiratory failure after extubation: n=6 (8%) vs n=20 (28%), p=0.002*
Reintubation: n=6 (8%) vs n=13 (18%), p=0.09
In-ICU mortality: n=2 (3%) vs n=6 (8%), p=0.28
Mortality at day 90: n=7 (10%) vs n=11 (15%), p=0.33
  • *Main end point.

  • APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICU, intensive care unit; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; PCO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide.