Table 4

Fully adjusted relative risk ratio estimates from multinomial logistic regression models for associations of exposures with antidepressant categories (against sertraline as the referent group) in the total cohort (n=1561)

Any one SNRI and mirtazapineAny one SSRI and mirtazapineAny two SSRIsCitalopramEscitalopramFluoxetineMirtazapineVenlafaxine
Age (year increment)1.05 (1.03–1.04)*1.03 (1.02–1.04)*0.98 (0.96–0.99)**1.01 (1.00–1.02)**1.01 (0.99–1.03)0.98 (0.96–0.98)*1.03 (1.02–1.04)*1.03 (1.02–1.03)*
Male gender†0.97 (0.57–1.76)1.33 (0.84–2.09)0.95 (0.56–1.61)0.95 (0.65–1.39)1.07 (0.56–2.01)1.08 (0.73–1.60)2.57 (1.85–3.57)*1.16 (0.76–1.76)
Past inpatient: yes‡1.09 (0.47–1.54)1.26 (0.59–2.70)0.97 (0.42–2.27)0.80 (0.43–1.88)0.60 (0.14–2.60)0.48 (0.21–1.07)0.68 (0.37–1.27)0.70 (0.32–1.54)
Past benzodiazepine use: yes‡1.30 (0.70–2.81)1.03 (0.55–1.90)1.63 (0.82–3.25)1.60 (0.94–2.73)1.77 (0.78–4.01)0.97 (0.53–1.77)1.58 (1.00–2.50)1.63 (0.94–2.81)
Past antipsychotic use: yes‡1.78 (1.03–2.36)**1.17 (0.69–1.99)0.91 (0.49–1.70)0.99 (0.63–1.60)1.53 (0.77–3.07)0.74 (0.46–1.17)1.19 (0.80–1.75)1.47 (0.91–2.36)
Past mood stabiliser use: yes‡2.38 (1.04–6.34)**1.23 (0.47–3.20)1.50 (0.50–4.36)0.99 (0.40–2.42)2.60 (0.93–7.27)1.65 (0.71–3.86)1.23 (0.60–2.55)2.96 (1.44–6.08)**
Past antidepressant use: yes‡3.06 (1.34–7.85)**0.95 (0.50–1.78)0.59 (0.31–1.10)0.76 (0.48–1.20)1.27 (0.55–2.94)1.42 (0.88–2.30)0.98 (0.63–1.53)1.10 (0.62–1.96)
Has had psychotherapy treatment before: yes‡0.67 (0.31–1.51)0.91 (0.45–1.75)0.88 (0.42–1.86)0.51 (0.27–0.98)**1.17 (0.48–2.89)0.91 (0.51–1.64)0.55 (0.32–0.94)**0.81 (0.43–1.52)
Has been referred to IAPT services: yes‡1.90 (1.15–1.91)**1.02 (0.65–1.60)0.81 (0.50–1.33)0.96 (0.68–1.37)1.18 (0.64–2.17)0.62 (0.43–0.91)*0.88 (0.63–1.22)0.79 (0.53–1.20)
Psychotic symptom: ≥2 mentions§0.82 (0.38–1.89)1.54 (0.72–2.71)1.00 (0.58–2.12)1.53 (0.95–3.00)0.67 (0.26–2.26)1.42 (0.79–2.51)1.16 (0.64–1.73)1.17 (0.54–1.90)
Cognitive symptom: ≥2 mentions§1.37 (0.67–2.67)1.40 (0.72–2.76)1.18 (0.56–2.47)0.94 (0.54–1.87)0.96 (0.30–2.17)0.77 (0.39–1.44)0.72 (0.49–1.38)1.32 (0.76–2.67)
Affective symptom: ≥2 mentions§0.53 (0.28–1.31)0.60 (0.24–1.13)0.93 (0.33–1.66)0.58 (0.27–0.83)**0.72 (0.31–1.87)0.42 (0.22–0.72)*0.79 (0.41–1.18)0.92 (0.36–1.32)
Somatic symptom: ≥2 mentions§1.40 (0.63–1.78)1.02 (0.65–2.84)0.92 (0.47–2.33)0.65 (0.36–1.16)0.84 (0.39–2.40)1.10 (0.62–1.97)1.60 (1.00–2.75)**0.70 (0.50–1.80)
Past suicidal ideation: yes‡1.34 (0.76–1.33)1.07 (0.62–1.86)1.04 (0.57–1.90)0.80 (0.50–1.29)0.75 (0.34–1.68)0.88 (0.55–1.42)0.90 (0.60–1.36)0.79 (0.47–1.33)
Past suicide attempt: yes‡1.01 (0.51–2.05)1.49 (0.82–2.68)1.74 (0.95–3.19)1.23 (0.74–2.05)0.66 (0.25–1.74)1.57 (0.97–2.54)1.13 (0.72–1.77)1.18 (0.67–2.06)
  • *P<0.05; **P<0.001.

  • †Reference: female.

  • ‡Reference: no.

  • §Reference: 0 or 1 mention of the symptom. Individuals with 0 or 1 mention of a symptom in the 12-month period prior to the observation frame were considered to be undergoing a milder experience of the symptom compared with individuals who had 2 or more mentions of the symptom in the 12-month period.

  • IAPT, improving access to psychiatric treatment; SNRI, selective  norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.