Table 2

Comparison of demographic characteristics, past service use and past psychotropic medication use by antidepressant category

Any one SNRI and mirtazapine
n=89
Any one SSRI and mirtazapine
n=110
Any two SSRIs
n=89
Citalopram
n=213
Escitalopram
n=52
Fluoxetine
n=200
Mirtazapine
n=305
Sertraline
n=360
Venlafaxine
n=143
Total
n=1561 (%)
Test statistic; p values*†
Demographics
 Mean age in years (SD)52.9 (16.6)48.6 (18.6)34.1 (16.2)42.7 (15.5)44.1 (16.3)33.3 (16.0)49.2 (18.8)39.3 (16.8)48.8 (18.1)43.8 (18.2)25.38
 Median age in years52483342443047384841<0.001
 Gender: female60 (67.4%)65 (59.6)64 (71.9)147 (69)35 (67.3)139 (69.5)138 (45.2)251 (69.7)91 (63.6)990 (63.4)60.07
 Male29 (32.6%)44 (40.4)25 (28.1)66 (31)17 (32.70)61 (30.5)167 (54.8)109 (30.3)52 (36.4)571 (36.6)<0.001
 Ethnicity: white61 (68.5%)69 (62.7)49 (55.1)135 (63.4)39 (75)127 (63.5)176 (57.7)213 (59.2)101 (70.6)970 (62.1)15.70
 Other28 (31.5%)41 (37.3)40 (44.9)78 (36.6)13 (25)73 (36.5)129 (42.3)147 (40.8)42 (29.4)591 (37.9)0.05
 Marital status: single34 (38.2%)61 (55.5)47 (52.8)127 (59.6)25 (48.1)133 (66.5)169 (55.4)216 (60)79 (55.2)891 (57.1)df=16
 Married31 (34.8%)26 (23.6)24 (27.0)40 (18.8)18 (34.6)23 (11.5)72 (23.6)80 (22.2)35 (24.5)349 (22.3)37.40
 Other24 (27%)23 (20.9)18 (20.2)46 (21.6)9 (17.3)44 (22)64 (21)64 (17.8)29 (20.3)321 (20.6)0.002
Area-level deprivation score
 First tertile‡ (2.25–22.3)29 (32.6%)27 (25.5)31 (34.8)62 (29.5)20 (38.5)64 (32.3)82 (27.2)122 (34.5)60 (42.9)497 (31.8)df=16
 Second tertile50 (56.2%)67 (63.2)44 (49.4)131 (62.4)26 (50)120 (60.6)184 (60.9)205 (57.9)71 (50.7)898 (57.5)26.33
 Third tertile (42.3–62.3)10 (11.2%)12 (11.3)14 (15.7)17 (8.1)6 (11.5)14 (7.1)36 (11.9)27 (7.6)9 (6.4)145 (9.3)0.05
Referral data
 Length of spell: mean years
 (SD)
0.91
(2.45)
0.94
(1.94)
0.51
(0.77)
0.80
(2.80)
1.04
(1.50)
0.81
(1.16)
0.90
(1.64)
0.73
(1.27)
1.40
(3.00)
15612.00
0.043
 Past§ inpatient at SLaM: yes16 (18%)24 (21.8)16 (18)18 (8.5)3 (5.8)13 (6.5)32 (10.5)47 (13.1)16 (11.2)185 (11.9)27.64
 No73 (82%)86 (78.2)73 (82)195 (91.5)49 (94.2)187 (93.5)273 (89.5)313 (86.9)127 (88.8)1376 (88.2)<0.001
Past§ medication use
 Benzodiazepine use: yes26 (29.2%)25 (22.7)19 (21.4)35 (16.4)11 (21.2)21 (10.5)71 (23.3)55 (15.3)36 (25.2)299 (19.1)28.01
 No, (%)63 (70.8%)85 (77.3)70 (78.6)178 (83.6)41 (78.8)179 (89.5)234 (76.7)305 (84.7)107 (74.8)1262 (80.8)<0.001
 Antipsychotic use: yes39 (43.8%)35 (31.8)22 (24.7)46 (21.6)18 (34.6)41 (20.5)97 (31.8)92 (25.6)53 (37.1)443 (28.3)32.07
 No50 (56.2%)75 (68.2)67 (75.3)167 (78.4)34 (65.4)159 (79.5)208 (68.2)268 (74.4)90 (62.9)1118 (71.6)<0.001
 Mood stabiliser use: yes13 (14.6%)7 (6.4)5 (5.6)8 (3.8)6 (11.5)10 (5)19 (6.2)15 (4.2)21 (14.7)104 (6.7)33.48
 No76 (85.4%)103 (93.6)84 (94.4)205 (96.2)46 (88.4)190 (95)286 (93.8)345 (95.8)122 (85.3)1457 (93.3)<0.001
 Antidepressant use: yes82 (92.1%)86 (78.2)61 (68.5)132 (62)41 (78.8)150 (75)233 (76.4)273 (75.8)114 (79.7)1172 (75.1)38.43
 No
7 (7.9%)24 (21.8)28 (31.5)81 (38)11 (21.2)50 (25)72 (23.6)87 (24.2)29 (20.3)389 (24.9)<0.001
Past§ psychological therapy referral
 Psychotherapy referral: yes13 (14.6%)18 (16.4)11 (12.4)14 (6.6)7 (13.5)22 (11)29 (9.5)46 (12.8)19 (13.3)179 (11.5)11.03
 No76 (85.4%)92 (83.6)78 (87.6)199 (93.4)45 (86.5)178 (89)276 (90.5)314 (87.2)124 (86.7)1382 (88.5)0.200
 IAPT referral: yes51 (57.3%)50 (45.5)40 (44.9)108 (50.7)27 (51.9)77 (38.5)131 (42.9)181 (50.3)58 (40.6)723 (46.3)17.21
 No38 (42.7%)60 (54.5)49 (55.1)105 (49.3)25 (48.1)123 (61.5)174 (57.1)179 (49.7)85 (59.4)838 (53.7)0.028
  • *ANOVA, χ2  test, t-tests or the Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to test differences between patient groups.

  • †df=8, unless otherwise specified.

  • ‡Area-level deprivation tertiles (first tertile: least deprived; third tertile: most deprived).

  • §‘Past’ refers to the 12 months prior to the observation window.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; IAPT, improving access to psychiatric treatment; SLaM, South London and Maudsley; SNRI, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.