Table 5

Fully adjusted relative risk ratio estimates from multinomial logistic regression models for associations of exposures with antidepressant categories (against sertraline as the referent group) in patients aged >25 years (n=1248)

Any one SNRI and mirtazapineAny one SSRI and mirtazapineAny two SSRIsCitalopramEscitalopramFluoxetineMirtazapineVenlafaxine
Age (year increment)1.04 (1.02–1.05)*1.03 (1.01–1.04)*0.99 (0.97–1.01)1.00 (0.99–1.02)1.00 (0.98–1.03)0.99 (0.98–1.01)1.03 (1.02–1.04)*1.02 (1.01–1.04)*
Male gender†0.87 (0.51–1.50)1.29 (0.79–2.11)0.89 (0.47–1.69)0.89 (0.59–1.35)1.04 (0.52–2.07)1.25 (0.78–2.00)2.36 (1.64–3.37)*1.10 (0.70–1.73)
Past inpatient: yes‡1.10 (0.45–2.69)0.96 (0.40–2.24)0.30 (0.07–1.26)0.83 (0.36–1.95)0.50 (0.09–3.23)0.50 (0.18–1.37)0.62 (0.31–1.24)0.61 (0.25–1.47)
Past benzodiazepine use: yes‡1.46 (0.76–2.78)1.25 (0.65–2.41)2.97 (1.32–6.68)**1.61 (0.89–2.90)1.90 (0.80–4.49)1.13 (0.57–2.24)1.94 (1.20–3.16)**1.87 (1.04–3.34)**
Past antipsychotic use: yes‡2.02 (1.14–3.58)**1.30 (0.73–2.32)1.02 (0.46–2.26)1.08 (0.66–1.80)1.55 (0.73–3.30)1.02 (0.57–1.80)1.16 (0.76–1.78)1.53 (0.92–2.57)
Past mood stabiliser use: yes‡2.26 (0.97–5.30)1.03 (0.37–2.90)1.17 (0.31–4.44)0.78 (0.30–2.14)2.67 (0.91–7.76)1.75 (0.68–4.47)1.27 (0.60–2.71)2.76 (1.28–5.97)**
Past antidepressant use: yes‡2.70 (1.07–6.86)**0.81 (0.41–1.61)0.44 (0.20–0.95)**0.72 (0.43–1.21)2.07 (0.43–5.54)1.07 (0.20–1.96)0.83 (0.50–1.36)1.09 (0.60–2.05)
Has had psychotherapy treatment before: yes‡0.80 (0.36–1.76)1.30 (0.64–2.63)0.95 (0.33–2.71)0.52 (0.24–1.15)1.75 (0.66–4.57)1.12 (0.51–2.44)0.68 (0.38–1.23)0.86 (0.43–1.73)
Has been referred to IAPT services: yes‡2.04 (1.20–3.48)**0.99 (0.60–1.62)0.93 (0.50–1.73)1.00 (0.67–1.50)1.36 (0.70–2.66)0.98 (0.61–1.68)0.93 (0.64–1.34)0.83 (0.53–1.31)
Psychotic symptom:  ≥2  mentions§0.81 (0.39–1.69)1.67 (0.85–3.26)0.88 (0.36–2.22)1.70 (0.94–3.09)0.70 (0.23–2.13)1.45 (0.75–2.81)1.24 (0.75–2.06)1.19 (0.63–2.23)
Cognitive symptom:  ≥2  mentions§1.16 (0.58–2.34)1.26 (0.63–2.53)0.88 (0.35–2.26)0.86 (0.44–1.66)0.98 (0.33–2.88)0.77 (0.37–1.64)0.61 (0.36–1.05)1.12 (0.58–2.13)
Affective symptom:  ≥2  mentions§0.51 (0.25–1.03)0.57 (0.29–1.12)0.93 (0.41–2.10)0.51 (0.30–0.86)**0.48 (0.21–1.10)0.35 (0.19–0.66)**0.82 (0.50–1.32)0.95 (0.53–1.68)
Somatic symptom:  ≥2  mentions§1.39 (0.71–2.74)1.01 (0.52–1.96)1.11 (0.49–2.48)0.66 (0.38–1.14)1.02 (0.47–2.42)1.18 (0.63–2.19)1.61 (1.01–2.56)**0.70 (0.39–1.22)
Past suicidal ideation: yes‡1.37 (0.75–2.50)1.03 (0.57–1.89)0.89 (0.40–1.98)0.80 (0.47–1.37)0.50 (0.19–1.34)0.92 (0.51–1.67)0.93 (0.59–1.46)0.84 (0.48–1.48)
Past suicide attempt: yes‡1.04 (0.51–2.11)1.51 (0.78–2.91)1.74 (0.76–4.00)1.35 (0.75–2.41)0.44 (0.12–1.64)2.06 (1.10–3.87)**1.18 (0.71–1.95)1.19 (0.63–2.20)
  • *P<0.05; **P<0.001.

  • †Reference: female.

  • ‡Reference: no.

  • §Reference: 0 or 1 mention of the symptom. Individuals with 0 or 1 mention of a symptom in the 12-month period prior to the observation frame were considered to be undergoing a milder experience of the symptom compared with individuals who had 2 or more mentions of the symptom in the 12-month period.

  • IAPT, improving access to psychiatric treatment; SNRI, selective  norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.