Table 1

Level of evidence for risk factors for new-onset atrial fibrillation

Level of evidenceCriteria
Strong evidenceConsistent findings in ≥2 high quality studies (adapted NOS score 8–9)
AND no conflicting studies
Moderate evidenceConsistent findings in 1 high quality study
AND ≥1 acceptable quality study (adapted NOS score 6–7)
AND no conflicting studies
Weak evidenceConsistent findings in ≥3 low quality studies (adapted NOS score ≤5
OR ≥2 acceptable quality studies
OR 1 high quality study in isolation
  • NOS, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.