Table 1

Study characteristics

AuthorDesignBlindingVitamin D doseFollow-up
Study populationPrimary outcome
Turrini et al 26 Prospective RCTDouble-blind300 000 IU at baseline 50 000 IU/month6 monthsChronic HF,
25(OH)D<20 ng/mL, 60 years<age
6MWD, echocardiography parameters, hormonal
Witte et al 30 Prospective RCTDouble-blind4000 IU/day12 monthsChronic HF, NYHA class II–III, LVEF<45%, 25(OH)D<20 ng/mL6MWD, echocardiography parameters
Qu et al 31 Prospective RCTSingle-blind1000 IU/day3 monthsNYHA class III–IVEchocardiography parameters,
BNP, 25(OH)D
Dalbeni et al 27 Prospective RCTDouble-blind4000 IU/day25 weeksChronic HF, LVEF<55%,
NYHA class>II,
25(OH)D<30 ng/mL, Age>40 years
Echocardiographic parameters,
NYHA class,
Boxer et al 32 Prospective RCTDouble-blind50 000 IU/week6 monthsAge≥50 years, NYHA class II–IV,
25(OH)D<37.5 ng/mL
Echocardiographic parameters, serum analysis, urine analysis
Shedeed29 Prospective RCTDouble-blind1000 IU/day12 weeksCongestive HF, LVEF<40%,
LV>2 SD for age and sex
Echocardiographic parameters
Schleithoff et al 28 Prospective RCTDouble-blind2000 IU/day9 monthsChronic HF,
NYHA class II–IV
Survival rates, NT-proBNP,
pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, echocardiographic parameters
  • 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 6MWD, 6-minute walk distance; HF, heart failure; IU, international units; LV, left ventricular; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NT, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; NYHA, New York Heart Association; RCT, randomised controlled trial.