Table 3

Practice issues in providing KC (specific treatments and conditions)*

ItemsVery/somewhat uncomfortable in ‘experienced in KC’ group (n=411), n (%)Very/somewhat uncomfortable in ‘not experienced in KC’ group (n=450), n (%)P values
Intravenous catheters30 (7.3)42 (9.3)0.943
During the perioperative period84 (20.4)95 (21.1)0.479
Endotracheal intubation143 (34.8)209 (46.4)0.005
 High-frequency jet or oscillator ventilation186 (45.3)240 (53.4)0.359
 Nasal cannula oxygen70 (17.0)114 (25.4)0.868
 Nasal continuous positive airway pressure100 (24.3)160 (35.6)0.222
Percutaneous central lines56 (13.6)110 (24.4)0.001
 Phototherapy151 (36.7)193 (42.9)0.841
 Umbilical arterial catheters142 (34.6)171 (38.0)0.657
 Umbilical venous catheters130 (31.6)160 (35.5)0.698
 Vasopressors105 (25.5)141 (31.3)0.712
  • *Based on the original literature review from the Kangaroo Care Questionnaire (Engler et al, 1999)17; p<0.05 was considered significant.

  • KC, kangaroo care.