Table 4

Barriers to implementing kangaroo care*

ItemsSomewhat/very influential in ‘experienced in KC’ group (n=411), n (%)Somewhat/very influential in ‘not experienced in KC’ group (n=450), n (%)P values
Senior nurses’ reluctance to allow KC206 (50.2)243 (54.0)0.123
Belief that technology (eg, incubators) is more beneficial to babies than the care a parent can provide180 (43.8)214 (47.6)0.471
Difficult providing privacy for families during KC216 (52.6)263 (58.4)0.056
Difficulty assessing babies readiness for KC188 (45.7)257 (57.2)0.001
 Family reluctance to initiate KC297 (72.3)323 (71.7)0.370
 Family reluctance to participate in KC297 (72.3)333 (74.0)0.184
 Fear of accidental extubation278 (67.6)334 (74.2)0.453
 Fear of arterial or venous line dislodgement276 (67.2)330 (73.3)0.932
 Fear of safety of KC for babies below a certain weight252 (61.4)325 (72.2)0.083
 Inability to provide adequate time to families during KC253 (61.6)320 (71.1)0.117
 Inconsistency in the practice of KC228 (55.5)298 (66.2)0.156
 Medical staff reluctance to allow KC296 (72.0)340 (75.5)0.155
 Nurses’ belief that KC is used for babies who are NOT developmentally ready for it232 (56.4)275 (61.1)0.730
 Nurses’ feeling that KC adds a burden to their workload242 (58.9)317 (70.4)0.187
 Nurses’ feeling that KC makes it difficult to administer care255 (62.0)323 (71.7)0.758
 Nursing staff reluctance to participate in KC281 (68.3)328 (72.9)0.760
 Parents’ discomfort with exposing their chest during KC250 (60.8)306 (68.0)0.338
Parents’ presence in the NICU for extended periods of time194 (47.2)268 (59.5)0.014
 Parents’ provision of too much stimulation to their baby during KC188 (45.7)221 (49.2)0.430
 Staff’s lack of exposure to parents participating in KC232 (56.4)276 (61.3)0.761
  • *Based on the original literature review from the Kangaroo Care Questionnaire (Engler et al, 1999)17; p<0.05 was considered significant.

  • KC, kangaroo care; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.