Table 2

Association of gout and other risk factors with hearing impairment

Multivariable-adjusted model 1*Multivariable-adjusted model 2*Multivariable-adjusted model 3*
HR (95% CI)P valuesHR (95% CI)P valuesHR (95% CI)P values
Age (in years)
 65 to <75RefRefRef
 75 to <85 1.60 (1.58 to 1.63) <0.0001 1.57 (1.55 to 1.60) <0.0001 1.54 (1.52 to 1.56) <0.0001
 ≥85 2.32 (2.28 to 2.37) <0.0001 2.28 (2.23 to 2.33) <0.0001 2.32 (2.27 to 2.36) <0.0001
Gender
 MaleRefRefRef
 Female 1.00 (0.98 to 1.01) 0.62 1.00 (0.98 to 1.01) 0.67 0.98 (0.97 to 0.99) 0.003
Race
 WhiteRefRefRef
 Black 0.60 (0.58 to 0.62) <0.0001 0.61 (0.59 to 0.62) <0.0001 0.62 (0.60 to 0.64) <0.0001
 Other 0.93 (0.90 to 0.96) <0.0001 0.94 (0.92 to 0.97) <0.0001 0.97 (0.94 to 1.00) 0.033
Charlson-Romano Score, per unit change 1.10 (1.09 to 1.10) <0.0001 NANA
Charlson-Romano Score
 0NARefNA
 1 1.54 (1.51 to 1.57) <0.0001
 ≥2 1.75 (1.73 to 1.78) <0.0001
Gout 1.44 (1.40 to 1.49) <0.0001 1.42 (1.38 to 1.46) <0.0001 1.32 (1.28 to 1.36) <0.0001
  • Bold represents statistical significance, with a p value <0.05.

  • *Model 1 included Charlson-Romano Score as a continuous variable; model 2 replaced it with categorised Charlson-Romano Score and model 3 replaced it with each of the 17 Charlson-Romano comorbidities plus hyperlipidemia, hypertension and coronary artery disease, ie, cardiovascular risk factors . All models were also adjusted for medications for cardiovascular diseases (statins, beta-blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors) and for urate-lowering therapies for gout (allopurinol, febuxostat).

  • NA, not applicable; Ref, referent category.