Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of people with hearing impairment 

Entire cohortHearing impairment during the follow-upP values
NoYes
Total, N 1 716 438*1 627 02989 409
Age, mean (SD)75.3 (7.6) 75.2 (7.6) 76.5 (7.3) <0.0001
Gender, N (%) <0.0001
 Male728 050 (42.4) 691 144 (42.5) 36 906 (41.3)
 Female988 388 (57.6) 935 885 (57.5) 52 503 (58.7)
Race/ethnicity, N (%) <0.0001
 White1 477 659 (86.1) 1 397 909 (85.9) 79 750 (89.2)
 Black141 798 (8.3) 137 200 (8.4) 4598 (5.1)
 Other/unknown96 981 (5.7) 91 920 (5.6) 5061 (5.7)
Charlson-Romano comorbidity score, mean (SD)1.60 (2.39) 1.59 (2.40) 1.75 (2.23) <0.0001
Charlson-Romano comorbidity score categories, N (%) <0.0001
 0905 578 (52.8%) 866 797 (53.3%) 38 781 (43.4%)
 1172 125 (10.0%) 160 939 (9.9%) 11 186 (12.5%)
 ≥2638 735 (37.2%) 599 293 (36.8%) 39 442 (44.1%)
Charlson-Romano Comorbidities, N (%)
 Myocardial infarction68 199 (4.0) 64 294 (4.0) 3905 (4.4) <0.0001
 Heart failure201 363 (11.7) 190 652 (11.7) 10 711 (12.0) 0.018
 Peripheral vascular disease166 866 (9.7) 156 169 (9.6) 10 697 (12.0) <0.0001
 Cerebrovascular disease166 659 (9.7) 156 026 (9.6) 10 633 (11.9) <0.0001
 Dementia77 454 (4.5) 74 434 (4.6) 3020 (3.4) <0.0001
 Chronic pulmonary disease267 689 (15.6) 251 447 (15.5) 16 242 (18.2) <0.0001
 Connective tissue disease47 429 (2.8) 43 887 (2.7) 3542 (4.0) <0.0001
 Peptic ulcer disease32 397 (1.9) 30 202 (1.9) 2195 (2.5) <0.0001
 Mild liver disease8440 (0.49) 7957 (0.49) 483 (0.54) 0.033
 Diabetes317 322 (18.5) 299 093 (18.4) 18 229 (20.4) <0.0001
 Diabetes with end organ damage93 630 (5.5) 87 895 (5.4) 5735 (6.4) <0.0001
 Hemiplegia14 238 (0.83)13 515 (0.83)723 (0.81)0.48
 Renal failure/disease59 136 (3.4) 56 187 (3.5) 2949 (3.3) 0.013
 Any tumour, leukaemia or lymphoma171 928 (10.0) 160 323 (9.9) 11 605 (13.0) <0.0001
 Moderate or severe liver disease1985 (0.12) 1905 (0.12) 80 (0.09) 0.018
 Metastatic cancer17 831 (1.0) 17 109 (1.1) 722 (0.81) <0.0001
 AIDS546 (0.03)520 (0.03)26 (0.03)0.64
Hypertension826 095 (48.1) 771 614 (47.4) 54 481 (60.9) <0.0001
Hyperlipidaemia594 495 (34.6) 552 056 (33.9) 42 439 (47.5) <0.0001
Coronary artery disease300 512 (17.5) 280 016 (17.2) 20 496 (22.9) <0.0001
Obesity35 772 (2.1) 33 622 (2.1) 2150 (2.4) <0.0001
  • Bold values represent statistically significant difference with a p-value of <0.05.

  • *Cohort selected for study of incident hearing loss that had a baseline period of 365 days without a diagnosis of hearing loss.