Table 1

PICO for study inclusion

Participants (P)Intervention (I)Comparison (C)Outcomes (O)
Inclusion criteria
 Males and females of any age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographic area, comorbidity or pregnancy statusVitamin D2 and/or vitamin D3 supplementation, administered in any form (intravenous, intramuscular, or oral), alone or combined with other intervention/s, of any dosage, and for any durationPlacebo or usual care. Any other non-pharmacological interventions or pharmacological interventionsInflammatory biomarkers including, but not limited to: all interleukins, all TNFα, TGF-β1, hs/CRP, MCP-1, ADMA, PAI-1, SAA, IFNγ, NFκB, MIF, ICAMs, fibrinogen, MMPs, adipocytokines: leptin, resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, omentin
Exclusion criteria
 NoneStudies without vitamin D supplementation
Study typeSystematic reviews of RCTs and RCTs
LanguageNo limit
Year of publicationNo limit
  • ADMA, assymetric dimethylarginine; hsCRP, high sensitivity C reactive protein; ICAMs, intracelleular adhesion molecules; IFNγ, interferon γ; MCP-1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1; MIF, macrophage migration inhibitory factor; MMPs, matrix metalloproteinases; NFκB, nuclear factor κB; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SAA, serum amyloid A; TGF-β1, tumour growth factor 1; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor α.