Table 5

Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient

Usual care10TTIncremental difference
nMeanSD(95% CI)nMeanSD(95% CI)Mean(95% CI)
No imputation for missing values
Utility at 3 months2060.770.23(0.74 to 0.80)1900.770.26(0.73 to 0.80)0.00(−0.05 to 0.05)
Utility at 6 months1630.760.24(0.72 to 0.80)1590.780.24(0.74 to 0.82)0.02(−0.03 to 0.07)
Utility at 12 months1510.770.24(0.73 to 0.81)1380.740.27(0.70 to 0.79)−0.03(−0.09 to 0.03)
Utility at 18 months1380.750.25(0.71 to 0.79)1240.740.27(0.69 to 0.79)−0.01(−0.07 to 0.05)
Utility at 24 months1570.760.25(0.73 to 0.80)1310.760.26(0.72 to 0.81)0.00(−0.06 to 0.06)
Discounted QALYs
(24 months)
921.520.40(1.44 to 1.61)731.470.47(1.36 to 1.58)−0.05(−0.18 to 0.08)
Missing values imputed*SESE
Utility at 3 months2700.770.016(0.73 to 0.80)2670.770.017(0.73 to 0.80)0.00(−0.05 to 0.05)
Utility at 6 months2700.760.016(0.73 to 0.79)2670.780.018(0.73 to 0.81)0.01(−0.03 to 0.06)
Utility at 12 months2700.760.019(0.73 to 0.80)2670.750.020(0.71 to 0.80)−0.01(−0.06 to 0.04)
Utility at 18 months2700.760.019(0.72 to 0.79)2670.750.020(0.71 to 0.79)−0.01(−0.05 to 0.04)
Utility at 24 months2700.760.019(0.72 to 0.79)2670.760.018(0.72 to 0.79)0.00(−0.05 to 0.05)
Discounted QALYs
(24 months)
2701.510.030(1.45 to 1.57)2671.510.033(1.44 to 1.58)0.00(−0.08 to 0.08)
  • Costs are in 2013/2014 UK£. CIs were based on non-parametric bootstrapping for observed data and imputed data.

  • SD for non-imputed data. SE for imputed data.

  • *Missing values imputed using multiple imputation with 20 imputed data sets (see text).

  • 10TT, Ten Top Tips.