Table 3B

Risk factors for study outcomes, multivariable estimates (GA at enrolment >20 weeks)

CharacteristicsStudy outcomes
Caesarean sections
n=4816, 20%
RR (95% CI)†
Pregnancy-related
maternal complications
n=3260, 14%
RR (95% CI)†
Stillbirths
n=488, 2%
RR (95% CI)†
Neonatal deaths
(within 28 days of birth)
n=390, 1%
RR (95% CI)†
Low birth weight
(<2500 g)
n=3776, 16%
RR (95% CI)†
Mother’s age (years)
 <200.63 *(0.46–0.86)0.78 (0.58 to 1.07)1.28 (0.66 to 2.49)1.47 (0.75 to 2.87)1.17 (0.92 to 1.48)
 20–29RefRefRefRefRef
 >291.66** (1.48 to 1.86)1.37** (1.18 to 1.60)2.31** (1.70 to 3.13)1.47 (1.00 to 2.16)1.29** (1.13 to 1.48)
Mother’s education (grades)
 Primary or less (≤4)0.45** (0.40 to 0.50)0.61** (0.54 to 0.68)1.51* (1.14 to 2.01)1.56* (1.13 to 2.14)1.08 (0.98 to 1.19)
 Secondary (5–10)0.66** (0.62 to 0.71)0.87** (0.80 to 0.94)1.34* (1.05 to 1.71)1.37* (1.04 to 1.80)1.10* (1.02 to 1.19)
 University (>10)RefRefRefRefRef
Parity
 Nulliparous1.51** (1.41 to 1.60)1.98** (1.83 to 2.15)1.25* (1.04 to 1.51)1.31* (1.06 to 1.61)1.31** (1.23 to 1.40)
 1–2RefRefRefRefRef
 >20.42** (0.32 to 0.55)0.74* (0.56 to 0.98)0.89 (0.56 to 1.42)1.49 (0.95 to 2.34)1 (0.84 to 1.20)
Anaemia (g/dL)
 Severe/moderate (<10)0.79** (0.72 to 0.87)0.87* (0.78–0.97)2.35** (1.56 to 3.53)2.76** (1.73 to 4.42)1.33** (1.19 to 1.49)
 Mild (10–11)0.87** (0.80 to 0.94)0.87* (0.78 to 0.97)1.81* (1.20 to 2.72)1.73* (1.08 to 2.76)1.07 (0.96 to 1.20)
 Normal (≥11)RefRefRefRefRef
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight (<18.5)0.84** (0.77 to 0.91)0.82** (0.74 to 0.90)1.12 (0.91 to 1.39)1.12 (0.88 to 1.42)1.28** (1.19 to 1.38)
 Normal (18.5 to 24.9)RefRefRefRefRef
 Overweight or obese (≥25)1.59** (1.45 to 1.74)1.55** (1.38 to 1.73)0.7 (0.44 to 1.10)1.03 (0.67 to 1.60)0.78* (0.68 to 0.91)
  • *P<0.05, **p<0.001.

  • †Obtained by multivariable GEE regression models for each outcome, separately.

  • GA, gestational age; GEE, generalised estimating equations.