Table 1

Patients’ characteristics by origin and gender

All
% (N)
Italian-born
% (N)
Foreign-born
% (N)
P-value*Male
% (N)
Female
% (N)
P-value*
Age (mean)40.7 (246)48.7 (109)34.3 (137) <0.001 41.0 (157)40.1 (89)0.941
Country of birth (n=253)
 Italy44.3 (112)42.2 (68)47.8 (44)0.389
 Abroad55.7 (141)57.8 (93)52.2 (48)
Gender (n=253)
 Males63.6 (161)60.7 (68)66.0 (93)0.389
 Females36.4 (92)39.3 (44)34.0 (48)
Education level (n=251)
 Low72.5 (182)63.6 (70)79.4 (112) 0.005 70.8 (114)75.6 (68)0.419
 High27.5 (69)36.4 (40)20.6 (29)29.2 (47)24.4 (22)
Living condition (n=240)
 Homeless/prison/nursing homes20.8 (50)3.7 (4)34.8 (46) <0.001 26.6 (41)10.5 (9) 0.003
 Apartment (own or rented)79.2 (190)96.3 (104)65.2 (86)73.4 (113)89.5 (77)
Employment (n=241)
 Unemployed or occasional work42.7 (103)14.3 (15)64.7 (88) <0.001 47.1 (73)34.9 (30) 0.019
 Permanent job26.6 (64)33.3 (35)21.3 (29)28.4 (44)23.3 (20)
 Housewife/retired/student30.7 (74)52.4 (55)14.0 (19)24.5 (38)41.9 (36)
Smoking habits (n=236)
 Current27.2 (67)29.9 (32)25.2 (35)0.40932.5 (51)18.0 (16) 0.014
 Never/former72.8 (179)70.1 (75)74.8 (104)67.5 (106)82.0 (73)
Alcohol abuse† (n=248)
 Yes6.9 (17)6.3 (7)7.3 (10)0.75810.1 (16)1.1 (1) 0.007
 No93.1 (231)93.7 (104)92.7 (127)89.9 (142)98.9 (89)
Chronic diseases‡ (n=251)
 Yes28.3 (71)39.1 (43)19.9 (28) 0.001 31.2 (50)23.1 (21)0.167
 No71.7 (180)60.9 (67)80.1 (113)68.8 (110)76.9 (70)
Stigma (n=252)
 >Median48.4 (122)41.4 (46)53.9 (76) 0.049 51.6 (83)42.9 (39)0.185
 ≤Median51.6 (130)58.6 (65)46.1 (65)48.4 (78)57.1 (52)
Integration index (mean)§4.4 (141)4.1 (93)5.1 (48) 0.008
Years in Italy (mean)§7.1 (127)6.6 (85)8.2 (42)0.242
Patient delay (n=231)
 Median (IQR)30 (8–60)15 (7–60)30 (14–60) 30 (10–60)28 (7–60)
 (>30 days)64.5 (149)29.1 (30)40.6 (52)0.06937.2 (55)32.5 (27)0.480
Health system delay (n=225)
 Median (IQR)11 (5–33)21 (7.25–61)8 (4–22)14.5 (6–37)8 (4–31)
 (>11 days)48.1 (111)61.5 (64)37.0 (47) <0.001 55.4 (82)34.9 (29) 0.008
Diagnostic delay (n=225)
 Median (IQR)7 (3–30)15 (4.75–60)7 (3–15)14 (4–30)6 (3–28)
 (>7 days)49.3 (111)64.7 (66)36.6 (45) <0.001 55.9 (81)37.5 (30) 0.008
Treatment delay (n=219)
 Median (IQR)2 (1–4)2 (1–4)2 (1–4)2 (1–5)2 (1–4)
 (>2 days)38.4 (84)38.4 (38)38.3 (46)0.99440.9 (56)34.1 (28)0.322
Total delay (n=208)
 Median (IQR)45 (25–121)53 (25–123)40 (25–97)47 (26–99)41 (16–120)
 (>45 days)49.5 (97)56.0 (50)44.0 (47)0.09166.0 (64)34.0 (33)0.525
  • *P<0.05 are indicated in bold.

  • †≥4 times a week.

  • ‡HIV/AIDS, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disability, renal failure, cardiovascular disease.

  • §Only in foreign-born patients.