Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

Study and yearStudy designGeographical locationAlcohol ascertainmentAlcohol definitionCAP ascertainmentConfounders adjustedEffect estimate
Almirall et al,45 1999Case–controlEurope/SpainSelf-report/questionnaireQuartiles of alcohol intake
>35.3 vs 0 (g/day)
Clinically suspected and chest radiographyAge, sex, municipalityOR
Almirall et al,44 2008Case–controlEurope/SpainSelf-report/questionnaireQuartiles of alcohol intake (g/day)
Men: >80 vs 0
Women: >40 vs 0
Clinically suspected and chest radiographyAge, sex, primary care practiceOR
Baik et al,10 2000CohortAmerica/USASelf-report/questionnaireMen: >30 vs never
Women: >30 vs never
Physician diagnosis/medical recordsAge, smoking status, BMI, quintile of metabolic equivalentRelative risk
Breitling et al,39 2016CohortAmerica/USASelf-report/questionnaireQuartiles of alcohol intake (g/day)
Men: >20 vs ≤20
Women: >10 vs 0
Self-report questionnaireAge, sex, smoking, BMI, diabetes mellitus, stroke, congestive heart failure, cancerRelative risk
Clough et al,42 2003Case–controlAustraliaSelf-report/interviewAlcohol yes vs alcohol noClinically suspected/X-ray findings* OR
Fernández-Solá et al,43 1995Case–controlEurope/SpainSelf-report/interview and questionnaireHigh intake (men: >100 g, women: >80 g) vs lower intake (g/day 2 years before submission)Clinically suspected/chest X-rayLiver cirrhosis, smoking, COPD, diabetes, heart failure, malnutritionOR
Inoue et al,36 2007CohortAsia/JapanSelf-report/questionnaireCurrent vs never drinkingMortality ICD codesAge and history of diabetes mellitusHR
Jackson et al,46 2009Case–controlAmerica/USAMedical recordsCurrent alcoholism vs no alcoholismICD-9 codesAge, sex, pneumonia-free person-timeOR
Koivula et al,37 1994CohortEurope/FinlandMedical recordsAlcoholism vs no alcoholismMedical recordsAge, sex, chronic conditionsRelative risk
Lipsky et al,11 1986Case–controlAmerica/USAMedical recordsHeavy vs moderate (drinks/day)Clinically suspected* Relative risk
Loeb et al,48 2009Case–controlAmerica/USASelf-report/questionnaireAlcohol yes (previous 12 months) vs alcohol no (g/month)Clinically suspected and chest radiographyMultivitamins, smoking, history of gas and fumes exposureOR
Phung and Wang,38 2013CohortAustraliaSelf-report/questionnaireAlcohol yes vs alcohol noHospital records—ICD codes* HR
Quraishi et al,49 2013Cross-sectionalAmerica/USASelf-report/interviewAlcohol consumption
(≤30 vs >30 drinks per month)
Self-report interview* Relative risk
Shen et al,35 2013CohortAsia/ChinaSelf-report/interviewExcessive vs never drinkers (units/week)Mortality ICD codesAge, sex, education, housing, monthly expenditure, smoking, BMI, exercise, health statusHR
Watt et al,47 2007Case–controlAmerica/USAMedical recordsAlcoholism/alcohol use vs no use of alcoholClinically suspected pneumococcal isolation in patient from sterile body fluidSmoking, BMI, electricity/indoor plumbing in home, living with unvaccinated child, unemployed, wood/coal, smokeOR
Yende et al,40 2013CohortAmerica/USAMedical recordsAlcohol abuse vs no alcohol abuseICD-9 codes* Relative risk
Zaridze et al,41 2009Case–controlEurope/RussiaSelf-report interview≥3 bottles(per week) vs ≤0.5 bottles of vodkaICD codes
Death records
Age, city and smokingRelative risk
  • *Crude analysis reported.

  • BMI, body mass index; CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICD, International Classification of Diseases.